Shewanella species grow in widely disparate environments and play key roles in elemental cycling, especially in environments with varied redox conditions. To obtain a system-level understanding of Shewanella's robustness and versatility, the complex interplay of cellular growth, metabolism, and transport under conditions of limiting carbon sources, energy sources, and electron acceptors must be elucidated. In this paper, population-level taxis of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 cells in the presence of a rate-limiting, insoluble electron acceptor was investigated. A novel mechanism, mediated energy taxis, is proposed by which Shewanella use riboflavin as both an electron shuttle and an attractant to direct cell movement toward local sources of insoluble electron acceptors. The cells secrete reduced riboflavin, which diffuses to a nearby particle containing an insoluble electron acceptor and is oxidized. The oxidized riboflavin then diffuses away from the particle, establishing a spatial gradient that draws cells toward the particle. Experimental and modeling results are presented to support this mechanism. S. oneidensis MR-1 cells inoculated into a uniform dispersion of MnO(2) particles in dilute agar exhibited taxis outward, creating a clear zone within which riboflavin was detected by mass spectrometry. Cells inoculated into dilute agar containing oxidized riboflavin similarly exhibited taxis, rapidly forming an expanding zone of reduced riboflavin. A mathematical model based on the proposed mechanism was able to predict experimental trends, including how concentrations of riboflavin and insoluble electron acceptors (e.g., MnO(2)) affected tactic cell migration.