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      Karyotype and COI sequences of Chironomus sokolovae Istomina, Kiknadze et Siirin, 1999 (Diptera,Chironomidae) from the bay of Orkhon River, Mongolia

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          Chironomus sokolovae Istomina, Kiknadze et Siirin, 1999 ( Diptera , Chironomidae ) is recorded from Mongolia for the first time. Eleven banding sequences determined in the Mongolian population were previously known from Altai and Yenisei populations: sokA1, sokB1, sokB2, sokC1, sokC2, sokD1, sokD2, sokE1, sokF1, sokF2 and sokG1. The additional B-chromosomes are absent. DNA-barcoding of COI gene was carried out for this species for the first time. The phylogenetic tree estimated by Bayesian inference showed a high similarity of the studied species with Ch. acutiventris Wülker, Ryser et Scholl, 1983 from the Chironomus obtusidens -group. The estimated genetic distance K2P between Ch. sokolovae and Ch. acutiventris is much lower (0.38%) than the commonly accepted threshold of 3% for species of genus Chironomus Meigen, 1803. Our results show that the accepted cytogenetic criteria of species level in the genus Chironomus are more in accordance with morphological ones of the same level, than with molecular-genetic criteria accepted for species COI genetic distance.

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          Most cited references 29

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          MEGA6: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis version 6.0.

          We announce the release of an advanced version of the Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software, which currently contains facilities for building sequence alignments, inferring phylogenetic histories, and conducting molecular evolutionary analysis. In version 6.0, MEGA now enables the inference of timetrees, as it implements the RelTime method for estimating divergence times for all branching points in a phylogeny. A new Timetree Wizard in MEGA6 facilitates this timetree inference by providing a graphical user interface (GUI) to specify the phylogeny and calibration constraints step-by-step. This version also contains enhanced algorithms to search for the optimal trees under evolutionary criteria and implements a more advanced memory management that can double the size of sequence data sets to which MEGA can be applied. Both GUI and command-line versions of MEGA6 can be downloaded from www.megasoftware.net free of charge.
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            MrBayes 3.2: Efficient Bayesian Phylogenetic Inference and Model Choice Across a Large Model Space

            Since its introduction in 2001, MrBayes has grown in popularity as a software package for Bayesian phylogenetic inference using Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. With this note, we announce the release of version 3.2, a major upgrade to the latest official release presented in 2003. The new version provides convergence diagnostics and allows multiple analyses to be run in parallel with convergence progress monitored on the fly. The introduction of new proposals and automatic optimization of tuning parameters has improved convergence for many problems. The new version also sports significantly faster likelihood calculations through streaming single-instruction-multiple-data extensions (SSE) and support of the BEAGLE library, allowing likelihood calculations to be delegated to graphics processing units (GPUs) on compatible hardware. Speedup factors range from around 2 with SSE code to more than 50 with BEAGLE for codon problems. Checkpointing across all models allows long runs to be completed even when an analysis is prematurely terminated. New models include relaxed clocks, dating, model averaging across time-reversible substitution models, and support for hard, negative, and partial (backbone) tree constraints. Inference of species trees from gene trees is supported by full incorporation of the Bayesian estimation of species trees (BEST) algorithms. Marginal model likelihoods for Bayes factor tests can be estimated accurately across the entire model space using the stepping stone method. The new version provides more output options than previously, including samples of ancestral states, site rates, site d N /d S rations, branch rates, and node dates. A wide range of statistics on tree parameters can also be output for visualization in FigTree and compatible software.
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              MrBayes 3: Bayesian phylogenetic inference under mixed models.

              MrBayes 3 performs Bayesian phylogenetic analysis combining information from different data partitions or subsets evolving under different stochastic evolutionary models. This allows the user to analyze heterogeneous data sets consisting of different data types-e.g. morphological, nucleotide, and protein-and to explore a wide variety of structured models mixing partition-unique and shared parameters. The program employs MPI to parallelize Metropolis coupling on Macintosh or UNIX clusters.

                Author and article information

                Role: InvestigationRole: MethodologyRole: Project administration
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comp Cytogenet
                Comparative Cytogenetics
                Pensoft Publishers
                27 May 2021
                : 15
                : 2
                : 149-157
                [1 ] Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters Russian Academy of Sciences, Yaroslavl reg., Nekouz prov., Borok, 152742, Russia Papanin Institute for Biology of Inland Waters Russian Academy of Sciences Borok Russia
                [2 ] Cherepovets State University, Lunacharski 5,Cherepovets, 162600, Vologda Oblast’, Russia Cherepovets State University Cherepovets Russia
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Viktor V. Bolshakov ( victorb@ 123456ibiw.ru )

                Academic editor: I. Sharakhov

                Viktor V. Bolshakov, Alexander A. Prokin

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Research Article
                Molecular Cytogenetics
                Molecular genetics


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