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      Mitochondrial phylogeography of baboons ( Papio spp.) – Indication for introgressive hybridization?

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          Abstract

          Background

          Baboons of the genus Papio are distributed over wide ranges of Africa and even colonized parts of the Arabian Peninsula. Traditionally, five phenotypically distinct species are recognized, but recent molecular studies were not able to resolve their phylogenetic relationships. Moreover, these studies revealed para- and polyphyletic (hereafter paraphyletic) mitochondrial clades for baboons from eastern Africa, and it was hypothesized that introgressive hybridization might have contributed substantially to their evolutionary history. To further elucidate the phylogenetic relationships among baboons, we extended earlier studies by analysing the complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene and the 'Brown region' from 67 specimens collected at 53 sites, which represent all species and which cover most of the baboons' range.

          Results

          Based on phylogenetic tree reconstructions seven well supported major haplogroups were detected, which reflect geographic populations and discordance between mitochondrial phylogeny and baboon morphology. Our divergence age estimates indicate an initial separation into southern and northern baboon clades 2.09 (1.54–2.71) million years ago (mya). We found deep divergences between haplogroups within several species (~2 mya, northern and southern yellow baboons, western and eastern olive baboons and northern and southern chacma baboons), but also recent divergence ages among species (< 0.7 mya, yellow, olive and hamadryas baboons in eastern Africa).

          Conclusion

          Our study confirms earlier findings for eastern Africa, but shows that baboon species from other parts of the continent are also mitochondrially paraphyletic. The phylogenetic patterns suggest a complex evolutionary history with multiple phases of isolation and reconnection of populations. Most likely all these biogeographic events were triggered by multiple cycles of expansion and retreat of savannah biomes during Pleistocene glacial and inter-glacial periods. During contact phases of populations reticulate events (i.e. introgressive hybridization) were highly likely, similar to ongoing hybridization, which is observed between East African baboon populations. Defining the extent of the introgressive hybridization will require further molecular studies that incorporate additional sampling sites and nuclear loci.

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          Most cited references 114

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          Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution

           John C. Avise (1994)
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            AWTY (are we there yet?): a system for graphical exploration of MCMC convergence in Bayesian phylogenetics.

            A key element to a successful Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) inference is the programming and run performance of the Markov chain. However, the explicit use of quality assessments of the MCMC simulations-convergence diagnostics-in phylogenetics is still uncommon. Here, we present a simple tool that uses the output from MCMC simulations and visualizes a number of properties of primary interest in a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis, such as convergence rates of posterior split probabilities and branch lengths. Graphical exploration of the output from phylogenetic MCMC simulations gives intuitive and often crucial information on the success and reliability of the analysis. The tool presented here complements convergence diagnostics already available in other software packages primarily designed for other applications of MCMC. Importantly, the common practice of using trace-plots of a single parameter or summary statistic, such as the likelihood score of sampled trees, can be misleading for assessing the success of a phylogenetic MCMC simulation. The program is available as source under the GNU General Public License and as a web application at http://ceb.scs.fsu.edu/awty.
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              African climate change and faunal evolution during the Pliocene–Pleistocene

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Evol Biol
                BMC Evolutionary Biology
                BioMed Central
                1471-2148
                2009
                23 April 2009
                : 9
                : 83
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Cognitive Ethology, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
                [2 ]Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
                [3 ]Institute of Farm Animal Genetics, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Neustadt, Germany
                [4 ]Göttinger Zentrum für Biodiversitätsforschung und Ökologie, Untere Karspüle 2, D-37073 Göttingen, Germany
                [5 ]Gene Bank of Primates and Primate Genetics, Deutsches Primatenzentrum, Kellnerweg 4, D-37077 Göttingen, Germany
                Article
                1471-2148-9-83
                10.1186/1471-2148-9-83
                2681462
                19389236
                Copyright © 2009 Zinner et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research Article

                Evolutionary Biology

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