HIV-1-infected cells are partially resistant to anti-HIV cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) due to the effects of the HIV Nef protein on antigen presentation by major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC-I), and evidence has been accumulating that this function of Nef is important in vivo. HIV Nef disrupts the normal expression of MHC-I by stabilizing a protein-protein interaction between the clathrin adaptor protein AP-1 and the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail. There is also evidence that Nef activates a phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase (PI3K)-dependent GTPase, ADP ribosylation factor 6 (ARF-6), to stimulate MHC-I internalization. However, the relative importance of these two pathways is unclear. Here we report that a GTPase required for AP-1 activity (ARF-1) was needed for Nef to disrupt MHC-I surface levels, whereas no significant requirement for ARF-6 was observed in Nef-expressing T cell lines and in HIV-infected primary T cells. An ARF-1 inhibitor blocked the ability of Nef to recruit AP-1 to the MHC-I cytoplasmic tail, and a dominant active ARF-1 mutant stabilized the Nef-MHC-I-AP-1 complex. These data support a model in which Nef and ARF-1 stabilize an interaction between MHC-I and AP-1 to disrupt the presentation of HIV-1 epitopes to CTLs.