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      Ascorbic Acid Mitigates D-galactose-Induced Brain Aging by Increasing Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Improving Memory Function

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          Abstract

          Ascorbic acid is essential for normal brain development and homeostasis. However, the effect of ascorbic acid on adult brain aging has not been determined. Long-term treatment with high levels of D-galactose (D-gal) induces brain aging by accumulated oxidative stress. In the present study, mice were subcutaneously administered with D-gal (150 mg/kg/day) for 10 weeks; from the seventh week, ascorbic acid (150 mg/kg/day) was orally co-administered for four weeks. Although D-gal administration alone reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and cognitive functions, co-treatment of ascorbic acid with D-gal effectively prevented D-gal-induced reduced hippocampal neurogenesis through improved cellular proliferation, neuronal differentiation, and neuronal maturation. Long-term D-gal treatment also reduced expression levels of synaptic plasticity-related markers, i.e., synaptophysin and phosphorylated Ca 2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II, while ascorbic acid prevented the reduction in the hippocampus. Furthermore, ascorbic acid ameliorated D-gal-induced downregulation of superoxide dismutase 1 and 2, sirtuin1, caveolin-1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor and upregulation of interleukin 1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha in the hippocampus. Ascorbic acid-mediated hippocampal restoration from D-gal-induced impairment was associated with an enhanced hippocampus-dependent memory function. Therefore, ascorbic acid ameliorates D-gal-induced impairments through anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects, and it could be an effective dietary supplement against adult brain aging.

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          Most cited references 45

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          Evidence that brain-derived neurotrophic factor is required for basal neurogenesis and mediates, in part, the enhancement of neurogenesis by dietary restriction in the hippocampus of adult mice.

          To determine the role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the enhancement of hippocampal neurogenesis resulting from dietary restriction (DR), heterozygous BDNF knockout (BDNF +/-) mice and wild-type mice were maintained for 3 months on DR or ad libitum (AL) diets. Mice were then injected with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) and killed either 1 day or 4 weeks later. Levels of BDNF protein in neurons throughout the hippocampus were decreased in BDNF +/- mice, but were increased by DR in wild-type mice and to a lesser amount in BDNF +/- mice. One day after BrdU injection the number of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus was significantly decreased in BDNF +/- mice maintained on the AL diet, suggesting that BDNF signaling is important for proliferation of neural stem cells. DR had no effect on the proliferation of neural stem cells in wild-type or BDNF +/- mice. Four weeks after BrdU injection, numbers of surviving labeled cells were decreased in BDNF +/- mice maintained on either AL or DR diets. DR significantly improved survival of newly generated cells in wild-type mice, and also improved their survival in BDNF +/- mice, albeit to a lesser extent. The majority of BrdU-labeled cells in the dentate gyrus exhibited a neuronal phenotype at the 4-week time point. The reduced neurogenesis in BDNF +/- mice was associated with a significant reduction in the volume of the dentate gyrus. These findings suggest that BDNF plays an important role in the regulation of the basal level of neurogenesis in dentate gyrus of adult mice, and that by promoting the survival of newly generated neurons BDNF contributes to the enhancement of neurogenesis induced by DR.
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            Melatonin attenuates D-galactose-induced memory impairment, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration via RAGE/NF-K B/JNK signaling pathway in aging mouse model.

            Melatonin acts as a pleiotropic agent in various age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we examined the underlying neuroprotective mechanism of melatonin against D-galactose-induced memory and synaptic dysfunction, elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. D-galactose was administered (100 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.)) for 60 days. After 30 days of D-galactose administration, vehicle (same volume) or melatonin (10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered for 30 days. Our behavioral (Morris water maze and Y-maze test) results revealed that chronic melatonin treatment alleviated D-galactose-induced memory impairment. Additionally, melatonin treatment reversed D-galactose-induced synaptic disorder via increasing the level of memory-related pre-and postsynaptic protein markers. We also determined that melatonin enhances memory function in the D-galactose-treated mice possibly via reduction of elevated ROS and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). Furthermore, Western blot and morphological results showed that melatonin treatment significantly reduced D-galactose-induced neuroinflammation through inhibition of microgliosis (Iba-1) and astrocytosis (GFAP), and downregulating other inflammatory mediators such as p-IKKβ, p-NF-K B65, COX2, NOS2, IL-1β, and TNFα. Moreover, melatonin lowered the oxidative stress kinase p-JNK which suppressed various apoptotic markers, that is, cytochrome C, caspase-9, caspase-3 and PARP-1, and prevent neurodegeneration. Hence, melatonin attenuated the D-galactose-induced memory impairment, neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration possibly through RAGE/NF-K B/JNK pathway. Taken together, our data suggest that melatonin could be a promising, safe and endogenous compatible antioxidant candidate for age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD).
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              Melatonin alleviates brain injury in mice subjected to cecal ligation and puncture via attenuating inflammation, apoptosis, and oxidative stress: the role of SIRT1 signaling.

               Lei Zhao,  Rui An,  Yang Yang (2015)
              Sepsis is a systemic inflammatory response to infection that causes severe neurological complications. Previous studies have suggested that melatonin is protective during sepsis. Additionally, silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1) was reported to be beneficial in sepsis. However, the role of SIRT1 signaling in the protective effect of melatonin against septic encephalopathy remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the role of SIRT1 in the protective effect of melatonin. EX527, a SIRT1 inhibitor, was used to reveal the role of SIRT1 in melatonin's action. Cecal ligation and puncture or sham operation was performed in male C57BL/6J mice. Melatonin was administrated intraperitoneally (30 mg/kg). The survival rate of mice was recorded for the 7-day period following the sham or CLP operation. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, brain water content, levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and HMGB1), and the level of oxidative stress (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA)) and apoptosis were assessed. The expression of SIRT1, Ac-FoxO1, Ac-p53, Ac-NF-κB, Bcl-2, and Bax was detected by Western blot. The results suggested that melatonin improved survival rate, attenuated brain edema and neuronal apoptosis, and preserved BBB integrity. Melatonin decreased the production of TNF-α, IL-1β, and HMGB1. Melatonin increased the activity of SOD and CAT and decreased the MDA production. Additionally, melatonin upregulated the expression of SIRT1 and Bcl-2 and downregulated the expression of Ac-FoxO1, Ac-p53, Ac-NF-κB, and Bax. However, the protective effects of melatonin were abolished by EX527. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that melatonin attenuates sepsis-induced brain injury via SIRT1 signaling activation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutrients
                Nutrients
                nutrients
                Nutrients
                MDPI
                2072-6643
                15 January 2019
                January 2019
                : 11
                : 1
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anatomy, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea; skavet@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr (S.M.N.); phoenix_1st@ 123456naver.com (J.-S.S.); ssnahm@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr (S.-S.N.); bjchang@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr (B.-J.C.)
                [2 ]Center for Neuroscience, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792, Korea; misun@ 123456kist.re.kr (M.S.); hrhim@ 123456kist.re.kr (H.R.)
                [3 ]Department of Science in Korean Medicine, Brain Korea 21 Plus Program, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea; ihcho@ 123456khu.ac.kr
                [4 ]Department of Cancer Preventive Material Development, Graduate School, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 02447, Korea
                [5 ]Ginsentology Research Laboratory and Department of Physiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Konkuk University, Seoul 05029, Korea; hyunjoongk@ 123456gmail.com (H.-J.K.); vettman@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr (S.-H.C.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: synah@ 123456konkuk.ac.kr ; Tel.: +82-2-450-3037
                Article
                nutrients-11-00176
                10.3390/nu11010176
                6356429
                30650605
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Nutrition & Dietetics

                ascorbic acid, d-galactose, hippocampus, brain aging, neurogenesis

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