Although epidemiologic studies of tibial plateau fractures have been conducted, none have included geographically defined populations or a validated fracture classification based on computed tomography (CT). The goals of this study were to provide up-to-date information on the incidence and basic epidemiology of tibial plateau fractures in a large unselected patient population and to report the mechanisms of injury involved and the distribution of fractures according to a validated CT-based fracture classification. The authors conducted a population-based epidemiologic study of all patients treated for tibial plateau fracture over a 6-year period from 2005 to 2010. The study was based on an average background population of 576,364 citizens. A retrospective review of hospital records was performed. During this time, a total of 355 patients were treated for tibial plateau fracture. This group included 166 men and 189 women, and mean age was 52.6 years (SD, 18.3). The most common fracture type was AO type 41-B3, representing 35% of all tibial plateau fractures. The second most common fracture type was AO type 41-C3, representing 17% of all tibial plateau fractures. The incidence of tibial plateau fractures was 10.3 per 100,000 annually. Compared with women, men younger than 50 years had a higher incidence of fractures. The incidence of fractures increased markedly in women older than 50 years but decreased in men older than 50 years. In both sexes, the highest frequency was between the ages of 40 and 60 years.