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      Enseñanza de la bioética y planes de estudios basados en competencias Translated title: Teaching bioethics in outcome-based curricula

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          Abstract

          Cada vez más se acepta que la bioética debe formar parte de la formación de los profesionales de la medicina. No obstante, permanecen muchos puntos confusos, como su carácter de ética aplicada, o su diferencia con el profesionalismo, con la deontología profesional o con el derecho. En este artículo se trata de mostrar que la bioética es ética cívica aplicada a la relación clínica, lo que supone la incorporación de los derechos civiles y sociales a dicha relación, y la identificación y el manejo de los conflictos de valores surgidos de esta interacción. La enseñanza de la bioética en las facultades de medicina debe insertarse, como el resto de las asignaturas, en el marco de las competencias. Definir conocimientos y desarrollar habilidades concretas y específicas es también el objetivo de esta disciplina. En el presente artículo se presenta una propuesta de competencias y contenidos para la enseñanza de la bioética, articulada en los dos niveles (preclínico y clínico) que caracterizan la enseñanza de la medicina.

          Translated abstract

          Increasingly accepted is that the bioethics must be part of the training of professionals of medicine, yet many points remain unclear, as its character of ethics applied, or its dispute with the professionalism, with the deontology professional, or with the law. This article tries to show that the bioethics civic ethics is applied to the relationship clinic, which represents the incorporation of civil and social rights this relationship, and the identification and management of conflicts of values arising from this interaction. The teaching of bioethics in the faculties of medicine should be inserted, like the rest of the subjects, in the framework of competences. Define knowledge and develop specific skills, is also the objective of this discipline. This article presents a proposal of competence and content for the teaching of bioethics, articulated in the two levels (preclinical and aged) that characterized the teaching of medicine.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Medical professionalism in the new millennium: a physician charter.

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            Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research.

            The purpose of this review is to synthesize all available evaluative research from 1970 through 1992 that compares problem-based learning (PBL) with more traditional methods of medical education. Five separate meta-analyses were performed on 35 studies representing 19 institutions. For 22 of the studies (representing 14 institutions), both effect-size and supplementary vote-count analyses could be performed; otherwise, only supplementary analyses were performed. PBL was found to be significantly superior with respect to students' program evaluations (i.e., students' attitudes and opinions about their programs)--dw (standardized differences between means, weighted by sample size) = +.55, CI.95 = +.40 to +.70 - and measures of students' clinical performance (dw = +.28, CI.95 = +.16 to +.40). PBL and traditional methods did not differ on miscellaneous tests of factual knowledge (dw = -.09, CI.95 = +.06 to -.24) and tests of clinical knowledge (dw = +.08, CI.95 = -.05 to +.21). Traditional students performed significantly better than their PBL counterparts on the National Board of Medical Examiners Part I examination--NBME I (dw = -.18, CI.95 = -.10 to -.26). However, the NBME I data displayed significant overall heterogeneity (Qt = 192.23, p < .001) and significant differences among programs (Qb = 59.09, p < .001), which casts doubt on the generality of the findings across programs. The comparative value of PBL is also supported by data on outcomes that have been studied less frequently, i.e., faculty attitudes, student mood, class attendance, academic process variables, and measures of humanism. In conclusion, the results generally support the superiority of the PBL approach over more traditional methods. Acad. Med. 68 (1993):550-563.
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              Global minimum essential requirements in medical education.

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              The process of globalization is increasingly evident in medical education and makes the task of defining global essential competences required by 'global physicians' an urgent matter. This issue was addressed by the newly established Institute for International Medical Education (IIME). The IIME Core Committee developed the concept of 'global minimum essential requirements' ('GMER') and defined a set of global minimum learning outcomes that medical school students must demonstrate at graduation. The 'Essentials' are grouped under seven broad educational domains with a set of 60 learning objectives. Besides these 'global competences', medical schools should add national and local requirements. The focus on student competences as outcomes of medical education should have deep implications for curricular content as well as the educational processes of medical schools.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Journal
                edu
                Educación Médica
                Educ. méd.
                Fundación Educación Médica (, , Spain )
                1575-1813
                June 2008
                : 11
                : 2
                : 69-76
                Affiliations
                Madrid orgnameUniversidad Autónoma de Madrid orgdiv1Facultad de Medicina orgdiv2Departamento de Psiquiatría España
                Article
                S1575-18132008000200005
                10.4321/s1575-18132008000200005

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 International License.

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                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 30, Pages: 8
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