Objective To explore the correlation between gross motor development and physical activity level of preschool children at different altitudes, so as to provide exercise basis for the development of gross motor ability.
Methods A total of 188 preschool children living in the 3 240 m high plateau (Hi group) in Tashkurgan County, 175 children living in the 1 290 m low plateau (SubHi group) in Kashgar District and 191 children living in the 450 m high plateau (Pla group) in Gaochang District of Turpan were selected as subjects. The children were assessed for gross motor development and tested for physical activity.
Results With the increase of age, the scores of MPA, VPA, MVPA and gross movement of preschoolers in each test group showed an upward trend. The above indexes in SubHi group were significantly higher than those in Hi group at 3-6 years old, and those in Pla group at 4-6 years old were significantly higher than those in Hi group ( P<0.05). The level of MPA in SubHi group and Pla group was significantly higher than that in Hi group at 3 to 4 years old, and the MVPA in SubHi group at 5 years old was significantly higher than that in Hi group ( P<0.05). SubHi group and Pla group were significantly higher than Hi group at 5 to 6 years of age, and Pla group was significantly higher than SubHi group at 5 years of age ( P<0.05). There were no significant differences in the above indexes among girls at different altitude groups ( P>0.05). The LPA of the Hi group and the SubHi group was positively correlated with the operational movement score ( r = 0.60, 0.44), and the LPA of the Pla group was positively correlated with the displacement movement score ( r= 0.69). There was a positive correlation between MPA and displacement score of Hi group ( r= 0.53), displacement score and gross movement total score of SubHi group ( r = 0.45, 0.59), and gross movement scores of Pla group ( r = 0.69, 0.52, 0.73). Except the displacement score and gross movement total score of the Pla group, VPA was positively correlated with the gross movement scores of each group ( P<0.05).
Conclusion There is a certain correlation between gross motor development and physical activity level in children aged 3-6 years.MVPA can be used as an effective means to improve the development of rough movements of 3-6-year-old children.
【摘要】 目的 探讨不同海拔地区学龄前儿童粗大动作发展与体力活动水平的关联性, 为儿童粗大动作能力发展研究提 供依据。 方法 于 2019 年 10—11 月, 采用方便抽样, 以塔什库尔干县 188 名世居 3 240 m 高原 (Hi 组)、喀什地区 175 名 世居 1 290 m 亚高原 (SubHi 组) 及吐鲁番高昌区 191 名世居 450 m 平原 (Pla 组) 3~6 岁学龄前儿童为研究对象, 进行粗大 动作发展评估及体力活动测试。 结果 随年龄上升, 各测试组学龄前儿童中等强度体力活动 (MPA)、高强度体力活动 (VPA)、中高强度体力活动 (MVPA)、粗大动作得分均呈上升趋势; SubHi 组男童 3~6 岁阶段均高于 Hi 组, Pla 组 4~6 岁阶 段上述指标均高于 Hi 组 ( P 值均<0.05); SubHi 组、Pla 组女童 3~4 岁阶段 MPA 水平高于 Hi 组, SubHi 组 5 岁阶段 MVPA 高于 Hi 组; SubHi 组、Pla 组在男童 5~6 岁阶段均高于 Hi 组, 5 岁阶段 Pla 组高于 SubHi 组 ( P 值均<0.05), 女童各海拔组 间上述指标差异均无统计学意义 ( P 值均>0.05)。Hi 组及SubHi组低强度体力活动 (LPA) 与操作动作得分呈正相关 ( r 值 分别为 0.60, 0.44), Pla 组 LPA 与位移动作得分呈正相关 ( r = 0.69); MPA 与 Hi 组位移动作得分 ( r =0.53)、SubHi 组位移动 作得分及粗大动作总分 ( r 值分别为 0.45, 0.59)、Pla 组粗大动作各项得分 ( r 值分别为 0.69, 0.52, 0.73) 均呈正相关 ( P 值 均<0.05); 除平原组位移得分及粗大动作总分外, VPA 与各组粗大动作各项得分均呈正相关 ( P 值均<0.05)。 结论 不同 海拔地区 3~6 岁儿童粗大动作发展与体力活动存在一定关联, 中高强度体力活动可以作为提高 3~6 岁儿童粗大动作发展 的有效手段。