13
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Autophagy and multidrug resistance in cancer

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Multidrug resistance (MDR) occurs frequently after long-term chemotherapy, resulting in refractory cancer and tumor recurrence. Therefore, combatting MDR is an important issue. Autophagy, a self-degradative system, universally arises during the treatment of sensitive and MDR cancer. Autophagy can be a double-edged sword for MDR tumors: it participates in the development of MDR and protects cancer cells from chemotherapeutics but can also kill MDR cancer cells in which apoptosis pathways are inactive. Autophagy induced by anticancer drugs could also activate apoptosis signaling pathways in MDR cells, facilitating MDR reversal. Therefore, research on the regulation of autophagy to combat MDR is expanding and is becoming increasingly important. We summarize advanced studies of autophagy in MDR tumors, including the variable role of autophagy in MDR cancer cells.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 73

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: not found
          • Article: not found

          Membrane transporters in drug development.

          Membrane transporters can be major determinants of the pharmacokinetic, safety and efficacy profiles of drugs. This presents several key questions for drug development, including which transporters are clinically important in drug absorption and disposition, and which in vitro methods are suitable for studying drug interactions with these transporters. In addition, what criteria should trigger follow-up clinical studies, and which clinical studies should be conducted if needed. In this article, we provide the recommendations of the International Transporter Consortium on these issues, and present decision trees that are intended to help guide clinical studies on the currently recognized most important drug transporter interactions. The recommendations are generally intended to support clinical development and filing of a new drug application. Overall, it is advised that the timing of transporter investigations should be driven by efficacy, safety and clinical trial enrolment questions (for example, exclusion and inclusion criteria), as well as a need for further understanding of the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion properties of the drug molecule, and information required for drug labelling.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A ubiquitin-like system mediates protein lipidation.

            Autophagy is a dynamic membrane phenomenon for bulk protein degradation in the lysosome/vacuole. Apg8/Aut7 is an essential factor for autophagy in yeast. We previously found that the carboxy-terminal arginine of nascent Apg8 is removed by Apg4/Aut2 protease, leaving a glycine residue at the C terminus. Apg8 is then converted to a form (Apg8-X) that is tightly bound to the membrane. Here we report a new mode of protein lipidation. Apg8 is covalently conjugated to phosphatidylethanolamine through an amide bond between the C-terminal glycine and the amino group of phosphatidylethanolamine. This lipidation is mediated by a ubiquitination-like system. Apg8 is a ubiquitin-like protein that is activated by an E1 protein, Apg7 (refs 7, 8), and is transferred subsequently to the E2 enzymes Apg3/Aut1 (ref. 9). Apg7 activates two different ubiquitin-like proteins, Apg12 (ref. 10) and Apg8, and assigns them to specific E2 enzymes, Apg10 (ref. 11) and Apg3, respectively. These reactions are necessary for the formation of Apg8-phosphatidylethanolamine. This lipidation has an essential role in membrane dynamics during autophagy.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Acquired resistance to TKIs in solid tumours: learning from lung cancer.

              The use of advanced molecular profiling to direct the use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) for patients with advanced-stage non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has revolutionized the treatment of this disease. However, acquired resistance, defined as progression after initial benefit, to targeted therapies inevitably occurs. This Review explores breakthroughs in the understanding and treatment of acquired resistance in NSCLC, focusing on EGFR mutant and ALK rearrangement-positive disease, which may be relevant across multiple different solid malignancies with oncogene-addicted subtypes. Mechanisms of acquired resistance may be pharmacological (that is, failure of delivery of the drug to its target) or biological, resulting from evolutionary selection on molecularly diverse tumours. A number of clinical approaches can maintain control of the disease in the acquired resistance setting, including the use of radiation to treat isolated areas of progression and adding or switching to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Furthermore, novel approaches that have already proven successful include the development of second-generation and third-generation inhibitors and the combination of some of these inhibitors with antibodies directed against the same target. With our increased understanding of the spectrum of acquired resistance, major changes in how we conduct clinical research in this setting are now underway.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                liyingjie0705@gmail.com
                leiyuhe2008@163.com
                banyam@sina.com
                15625130329@163.com
                fionahunan@icloud.com
                chywc@aliyun.com
                dmzhang701@foxmail.com
                chenz@stjohns.edu
                Journal
                Chin J Cancer
                Chin J Cancer
                Chinese Journal of Cancer
                BioMed Central (London )
                1000-467X
                1944-446X
                24 June 2017
                24 June 2017
                2017
                : 36
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1790 3548, GRID grid.258164.c, Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine & Natural Products, College of Pharmacy, , Jinan University, ; Guangzhou, 510632 Guangdong P. R. China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1954 7928, GRID grid.264091.8, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences, , St. John’s University, ; Queens, NY 11439 USA
                Article
                219
                10.1186/s40880-017-0219-2
                5482965
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funding
                Funded by: Science and Technology Program of China
                Award ID: 2012ZX09103101-053
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: National Science Foundation of Guangdong Province
                Award ID: S2013050014183
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100004602, Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University;
                Categories
                Review
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Comments

                Comment on this article