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      Effect of inhaled drugs on anxiety and depression in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a prospective observational study

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          We investigated the effect of treatment with inhaled drugs on changes in mood, focusing on depression and anxiety during treatment in patients with newly diagnosed chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).


          We prospectively selected new COPD patients from three Seoul National Hospitals. Participants underwent face-to-face interviews to evaluate clinical characteristics and drug use, and completed questionnaires using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) at the start of the project, the 4th week, and the 12th week. We compared changes in HADS scores both between inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/long-acting β 2 agonist (LABA) users and non-ICS/LABA users, as well as between long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA) users and non-LAMA users. The general linear mixed model was applied for multivariate analysis.


          Ninety new COPD patients participated in the study. Of these 90 patients, 84 completed face-to-face interviews. In the univariate analysis, those who were treated by ICS/LABA or LAMA showed a significant increase in HADS-A at the 4-week evaluation (0.73±2.56, P=0.038), but the statistical significance was lost in the multivariable analysis. No significant difference was found in the change in HADS scores between ICS/LABA users and non-ICS/LABA users, or between LAMA users and non-LAMA users in multivariate general linear mixed model analyses.


          In this prospective observational study, we found no significant effects of inhaled treatment on mood problems among new COPD patients. Further research should be conducted to identify the association between anxiety and depression and inhaled drugs for COPD treatment.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Global strategy for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. NHLBI/WHO Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) Workshop summary.

           ,  Suzanne Hurd,  P Calverley (2001)
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            Anxiety and depression in COPD: current understanding, unanswered questions, and research needs.

            Approximately 60 million people in the United States live with one of four chronic conditions: heart disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and major depression. Anxiety and depression are very common comorbidities in COPD and have significant impact on patients, their families, society, and the course of the disease. We report the proceedings of a multidisciplinary workshop on anxiety and depression in COPD that aimed to shed light on the current understanding of these comorbidities, and outline unanswered questions and areas of future research needs. Estimates of prevalence of anxiety and depression in COPD vary widely but are generally higher than those reported in some other advanced chronic diseases. Untreated and undetected anxiety and depressive symptoms may increase physical disability, morbidity, and health-care utilization. Several patient, physician, and system barriers contribute to the underdiagnosis of these disorders in patients with COPD. While few published studies demonstrate that these disorders associated with COPD respond well to appropriate pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic therapy, only a small proportion of COPD patients with these disorders receive effective treatment. Future research is needed to address the impact, early detection, and management of anxiety and depression in COPD.
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              Depressive symptoms and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effect on mortality, hospital readmission, symptom burden, functional status, and quality of life.

              Depressive symptoms are common among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but depression's impact on COPD outcomes has not been fully investigated. We evaluated the impact of comorbid depression on mortality, hospital readmission, smoking behavior, respiratory symptom burden, and physical and social functioning in patients with COPD. In this prospective cohort study, 376 consecutive patients with COPD hospitalized for acute exacerbation were followed up for 1 year. The independent associations of baseline comorbid depression (designated as a Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale score of > or =8) with mortality, hospital readmission, length of stay, persistent smoking, and quality of life (determined by responses to the St George Respiratory Questionnaire) were evaluated after adjusting for potential confounders. The prevalence of depression at admission was 44.4%. The median follow-up duration was 369 days, during which 57 patients (15.2%) died, and 202 (53.7%) were readmitted at least once. Multivariate analyses showed that depression was significantly associated with mortality (hazard ratio, 1.93; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-3.58), longer index stay (mean, 1.1 more days; P = .02) and total stay (mean, 3.0 more days; P = .047), persistent smoking at 6 months (odds ratio, 2.30; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-4.52), and 12% to 37% worse symptoms, activities, and impact subscale scores and total score on the St George Respiratory Questionnaire at the index hospitalization and 1 year later, even after controlling for chronicity and severity of COPD, comorbidities, and behavioral, psychosocial, and socioeconomic variables. Comorbid depressive symptoms in patients with COPD are associated with poorer survival, longer hospitalization stay, persistent smoking, increased symptom burden, and poorer physical and social functioning. Interventions that reduce depressive symptoms may potentially affect COPD outcomes.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                11 April 2016
                : 11
                : 747-754
                [1 ]Department of Preventive Medicine, College of Korean Medicine, Dongguk University, Gyeongju, Republic of Korea
                [2 ]National Evidence-based Healthcare Collaborating Agency, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                [3 ]Department of Information Statistics, College of Natural Science, Andong National University, Andong, Republic of Korea
                [4 ]Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul, Republic of Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Chang-Hoon Lee, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-Ro, Jongno-Gu, Seoul 03080, Republic of Korea, Tel +82 2 2072 4743, Fax +82 2 7629 662, Email kauri670@
                © 2016 Hyun et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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