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      OncoTargets and Therapy (submit here)

      This international, peer-reviewed Open Access journal by Dove Medical Press focuses on the pathological basis of cancers, potential targets for therapy and treatment protocols to improve the management of cancer patients. Publishing high-quality, original research on molecular aspects of cancer, including the molecular diagnosis, since 2008. Sign up for email alerts here. 50,877 Monthly downloads/views I 4.345 Impact Factor I 7.0 CiteScore I 0.81 Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) I 0.811 Scimago Journal & Country Rank (SJR)

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      Is Open Access

      Functional miRNAs in breast cancer drug resistance


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          Owing to improved early surveillance and advanced therapy strategies, the current death rate due to breast cancer has decreased; nevertheless, drug resistance and relapse remain obstacles on the path to successful systematic treatment. Multiple mechanisms responsible for drug resistance have been elucidated, and miRNAs seem to play a major part in almost every aspect of cancer progression, including tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In recent years, exosomes have emerged as novel modes of intercellular signaling vehicles, initiating cell–cell communication through their fusion with target cell membranes, delivering functional molecules including miRNAs and proteins. This review particularly focuses on enumerating functional miRNAs involved in breast cancer drug resistance as well as their targets and related mechanisms. Subsequently, we discuss the prospects and challenges of miRNA function in drug resistance and highlight valuable approaches for the investigation of the role of exosomal miRNAs in breast cancer progression and drug resistance.

          Most cited references96

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          Oncogenic kinase signalling.

          Protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) are important regulators of intracellular signal-transduction pathways mediating development and multicellular communication in metazoans. Their activity is normally tightly controlled and regulated. Perturbation of PTK signalling by mutations and other genetic alterations results in deregulated kinase activity and malignant transformation. The lipid kinase phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase (PI(3)K) and some of its downstream targets, such as the protein-serine/threonine kinases Akt and p70 S6 kinase (p70S6K), are crucial effectors in oncogenic PTK signalling. This review emphasizes how oncogenic conversion of protein kinases results from perturbation of the normal autoinhibitory constraints on kinase activity and provides an update on our knowledge about the role of deregulated PI(3)K/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin/p70S6K signalling in human malignancies.
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            NF-kappaB in cancer: from innocent bystander to major culprit.

            Nuclear factor of kappaB (NF-kappaB) is a sequence-specific transcription factor that is known to be involved in the inflammatory and innate immune responses. Although the importance of NF-KB in immunity is undisputed, recent evidence indicates that NF-kappaB and the signalling pathways that are involved in its activation are also important for tumour development. NF-kappaB should therefore receive as much attention from cancer researchers as it has already from immunologists.
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              Novel anticancer targets: revisiting ERBB2 and discovering ERBB3.

              Aberrant receptor expression or functioning of the epidermal growth factor receptor (Erbb) family plays a crucial part in the development and evolution of cancer. Inhibiting the signalling activity of individual receptors in this family has advanced the treatment of a range of human cancers. In this Review we re-evaluate the role of two important family members, ERBB2 (also known as HER2) and ERBB3 (also known as HER3), and explore the mechanisms of action and preclinical and clinical data for new therapies that target signalling through these pivotal receptors. These new therapies include tyrosine kinase inhibitors, antibody-chemotherapy conjugates, heat-shock protein inhibitors and antibodies that interfere with the formation of ERBB2-ERBB3 dimers.

                Author and article information

                Onco Targets Ther
                Onco Targets Ther
                OncoTargets and Therapy
                OncoTargets and therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                19 March 2018
                : 11
                : 1529-1541
                [1 ]Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University
                [2 ]School of Basic Medicine and Clinical Pharmacy, China Pharmaceutical University
                [3 ]Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Hospital
                [4 ]The First Clinical School of Nanjing Medical University
                [5 ]Jiangsu Key Lab of Cancer Biomarkers, Prevention and Treatment, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jinhai Tang, Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, 300 Guangzhou Road, Nanjing 210029, People’s Republic of China, Email tangjh@ 123456njmu.edu.cn
                Yong Xu, Nanjing Medical University Affiliated Cancer Hospital, 42 Baiziting, Nanjing 210009, People’s Republic of China, Email yxu4696@ 123456njmu.edu.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2018 Hu et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.


                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                microrna,exosome,breast cancer,drug resistance
                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                microrna, exosome, breast cancer, drug resistance


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