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      Marizomib activity as a single agent in malignant gliomas: ability to cross the blood-brain barrier

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          Abstract

          The proteasome plays a vital role in the physiology of glioblastoma (GBM), and proteasome inhibition can be used as a strategy for treating GBM. Marizomib is a second-generation, irreversible proteasome inhibitor with a more lipophilic structure that suggests the potential for penetrating the blood-brain barrier. While bortezomib and carfilzomib, the 2 proteasome inhibitors approved for treatment of multiple myeloma, have little activity against malignant gliomas in vivo, marizomib could be a novel therapeutic strategy for primary brain tumors.

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          Most cited references26

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          Relationship of glioblastoma multiforme to neural stem cell regions predicts invasive and multifocal tumor phenotype.

          Neural stem cells with astrocyte-like characteristics exist in the human brain subventricular zone (SVZ), and these cells may give rise to glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). We therefore analyzed MRI features of GBMs in specific relation to the SVZ. We reviewed the preoperative and serial postoperative MR images of 53 patients with newly diagnosed GBM. The spatial relationship of the contrast-enhancing lesion (CEL) with the SVZ and cortex was determined preoperatively. Classification was as follows: group I, CEL contacting SVZ and infiltrating cortex; group II, CEL contacting SVZ but not involving cortex; group III, CEL not contacting SVZ but involving cortex; and group IV, CEL neither contacting SVZ nor infiltrating cortex. Patients with group I GBMs (n = 16) were most likely to have multifocal disease at diagnosis (9 patients, 56%, p = 0.001). In contrast, group IV GBMs (n = 14) were never multifocal. Group II (n = 14) and group III (n = 9) GBMs were multifocal in 11% and 29% of cases, respectively. Group I GBMs always had tumor recurrences noncontiguous with the initial lesion(s), while group IV GBM recurrences were always bordering the primary lesion. Group I GBMs may be most related to SVZ stem cells; these tumors were in intimate contact with the SVZ, were most likely to be multifocal at diagnosis, and recurred at great distances to the initial lesion(s). In contrast, group IV GBMs were always solitary lesions; these may arise from non-SVZ, white matter glial progenitors. Our MRI-based classification of GBMs may further our understanding of GBM histogenesis and help predict tumor recurrence pattern.
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            Reactive oxygen species generation and mitochondrial dysfunction in the apoptotic response to Bortezomib, a novel proteasome inhibitor, in human H460 non-small cell lung cancer cells.

            Bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, shows substantial anti-tumor activity in a variety of tumor cell lines, is in phase I, II, and III clinical trials and has recently been approved for the treatment of patients with multiple myeloma. The sequence of events leading to apoptosis following proteasome inhibition by bortezomib is unclear. Bortezomib effects on components of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway were examined: generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), alteration in the mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi m), and release of cytochrome c from mitochondria. With human H460 lung cancer cells, bortezomib exposure at 0.1 microM showed induction of apoptotic cell death starting at 24 h, with increasing effects after 48-72 h of treatment. After 3-6 h, an elevation in ROS generation, an increase in Delta psi m, and the release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, were observed in a time-dependent manner. Co-incubation with rotenone and antimycin A, inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport chain complexes I and III, or with cyclosporine A, an inhibitor of mitochondrial permeability transition pore, resulted in inhibition of bortezomib-induced ROS generation, increase in Delta psi m, and cytochrome c release. Tiron, an antioxidant agent, blocked the bortezomib-induced ROS production, Delta psi m increase, and cytochrome c release. Tiron treatment also protected against the bortezomib-induced PARP protein cleavage and cell death. Benzyloxycarbonyl-VAD-fluoromethyl ketone, an inhibitor of pan-caspase, did not alter the bortezomib-induced ROS generation and increase in Delta psi m, although it prevented bortezomib-induced poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage and apoptotic death. In PC-3 prostate carcinoma cells (with overexpression of Bcl-2), a reduction of bortezomib-induced ROS generation, Delta psi m increase was correlated with cellular resistance to bortezomib and the attenuation of drug-induced apoptosis. The transient transfection of wild type p53 in p53 null H358 cells caused stimulation of the bortezomib-induced apoptosis but failed to enhance ROS generation and Delta psi m increase. Thus ROS generation plays a critical role in the initiation of the bortezomib-induced apoptotic cascade by mediation of the disruption of Delta psi m and the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria.
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              Proteasome inhibitors in cancer therapy.

              The ubiquitin proteasome pathway plays a critical role in regulating many processes in the cell which are important for tumour cell growth and survival. Inhibition of proteasome function has emerged as a powerful strategy for anti-cancer therapy. Clinical validation of the proteasome as a therapeutic target was achieved with bortezomib and has prompted the development of a second generation of proteasome inhibitors with improved pharmacological properties. This review summarises the main mechanisms of action of proteasome inhibitors in cancer, the development of proteasome inhibitors as therapeutic agents and the properties and progress of next generation proteasome inhibitors in the clinic.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Neuro-Oncology
                Neuro Oncol
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                1522-8517
                1523-5866
                May 12 2016
                June 2016
                June 2016
                December 17 2015
                : 18
                : 6
                : 840-848
                Article
                10.1093/neuonc/nov299
                4864261
                26681765
                c81d0824-3d50-49cd-997f-0edbfbacccf5
                © 2015
                History

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