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      Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Hemodialysis Patients: Role of Preload Increase Maneuver on Tissue Doppler Imaging Evaluation

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          Objective: Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) has recently been proposed as a relatively preload-independent method to evaluate left ventricular diastolic function. We sought to investigate the higher-accuracy of TDI to assess diastolic function in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients on hemodialysis (HD) associated with a preload increase maneuver. Methods: Thirty-two consecutiveESRD patients (16 female, ages 48.8 ± 17.5 years, 14 ≤45 and 18 >45 years old) were evaluated. Measurements of E, A velocities and the E/A ratio from transmitral inflow pulsed wave Doppler, and E’, A’ velocities and the E’/A’ ratio from TDI were obtained 1 h before and 1 h after HD at baseline and with a preload increase maneuver. Results: The E/A ratio changed significantly in all patients aged >45 before and after HD with the preload increase maneuver. The E’/A’ ratio increased in all subjects with the preload increase maneuver before HD but did not change with the maneuver after HD in the euvolemic state in all patients. Conclusion: In ESRD patients on routine HD, TDI evaluation associated with a preload increase maneuver proved to be a more accurate method to identify diastolic dysfunction when the evaluation is performed in euvolemic patients after HD.

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          New Doppler echocardiographic applications for the study of diastolic function.

          Doppler echocardiography is one of the most useful clinical tools for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. Doppler indices of LV filling and pulmonary venous (PV) flow are used not only for diagnostic purposes but also for establishing prognosis and evaluating the effect of therapeutic interventions. The utility of these indices is limited, however, by the confounding effects of different physiologic variables such as LV relaxation, compliance and filling pressure. Since alterations in these variables result in changes in Doppler indices of opposite direction, it is often difficult to determine the status of a given variable when a specific Doppler filling pattern is observed. Recently, color M-mode and tissue Doppler have provided useful insights in the study of diastolic function. These new Doppler applications have been shown to provide an accurate estimate of LV relaxation and appear to be relatively insensitive to the effects of preload compensation. This review will focus on the complementary role of color M-mode and tissue Doppler echocardiography and traditional Doppler indices of LV filling and PV flow in the assessment of diastolic function.
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            Peak early diastolic mitral annulus velocity by tissue Doppler imaging adds independent and incremental prognostic value.

            The aim of this study was to ascertain if left ventricular mitral annulus velocities measured by tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) are more powerful predictors of outcome compared with clinical data and standard Doppler-echocardiographic parameters. Tissue Doppler imaging of basal or mitral annulus velocities provides rapid assessment of ventricular long axis function. But it is not known if TDI-derived velocities in systole and diastole add incremental value and are superior to the standard Doppler-echocardiographic measurements as a predictor of outcome. The study population consisted of 518 subjects, 353 with cardiac disease and 165 normal subjects who had full Doppler two-dimensional-echocardiographic studies with measurement of mitral inflow velocities in early and late diastole, E-wave deceleration time (DT), peak systolic mitral annular velocity (Sm) early and late diastolic mitral annular velocity (Em and Am) by TDI, early diastolic flow propagation velocity, and standard chamber dimensions. All subjects were followed up for two years. The end point was cardiac death. Tissue Doppler imaging mitral annulus systolic and diastolic velocities were all significantly lower in the non-survivors (all p < 0.05) as was DT (p = 0.024). In the Cox model the best predictors of mortality were Em, Sm, Am, left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular mass, and left atrial diameter in systole (LADs). By backward stepwise analysis Em and LADs were the strongest predictors. After forcing the TDI measurements into the covariate model with clinical and mitral DT <0.16 s, Em provided significant incremental value for predicting cardiac mortality (p = 0.004). Mitral annulus velocity measured by TDI in early diastole gives incremental predictive power for cardiac mortality compared to clinical data and standard echocardiographic measurements. This easily available measurement adds significant value in the clinical management of cardiac patients.
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              A practical approach to the echocardiographic evaluation of diastolic function.

              A number of recent community-based epidemiologic studies suggest that 40% to 50% of the cases of heart failure have preserved left ventricular systolic function. Although diastolic heart failure is often not well clinically recognized, it is associated with marked increases in morbidity and all-cause mortality. Doppler echocardiography has emerged as the principal clinical tool for the assessment of left ventricular diastolic function. Doppler mitral inflow velocity-derived variables remain the cornerstone of the evaluation of diastolic function. Pulmonary venous Doppler flow indices and mitral inflow measurements with Valsalva's maneuver are important adjuncts for differentiating normal and pseudonormal mitral inflow patterns. Unfortunately, these Doppler flow variables are significantly influenced by loading conditions and, therefore, the results from these standard techniques can be inconclusive. Recently, color M-mode and Doppler tissue imaging have emerged as new modalities that are less affected by preload and, thus, provide a strong complementary role in the assessment of diastolic function. This review will discuss the diastolic properties of the left ventricle, Doppler echocardiographic evaluation, and grading of diastolic dysfunction.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                December 2006
                19 December 2006
                : 26
                : 5
                : 469-475
                aHospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, and bUniversidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul/UFRGS, Porto Alegre (RS), Brasil
                96755 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:469–475
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 5, References: 24, Pages: 7
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                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research


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