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      Long-Term Outcome of Patients with Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

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          Abstract

          Aims: Conflicting results exist regarding bone mineral density (BMD), metabolism and reproductive function of adult patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). We evaluated the long-term outcome and the impact of chronic glucocorticoid replacement in these patients. Methods: Physical characteristics, serum hormone concentrations, BMD and metabolism were studied in 45 consecutive CAH adult patients. Results: Among the 36 women, only 14 (39%) had regular menses. Among the 27 women with classical CAH, the mean number of surgical reconstructions of virilized genitalia was 2.1 ± 0.2. Twenty of them (74%) were sexually active. Three men presented with testicular adrenal rest tumors. Twenty-five patients (55%) had decreased BMD at the femoral neck and/or at the lumbar spine. BMI was correlated with the BMD T-score at the femoral neck (p < 0.001) and at the lumbar spine (p < 0.01). Hydrocortisone dose was negatively correlated with the BMD T-score at the femoral neck (p = 0.04). Subjects with osteopenia had a significantly lower BMI and received higher hydrocortisone dose than those with normal BMD. Overweight was found in 21 patients (47%). There was a significantly positive correlation between HOMA and BMI (p < 0.001), and between HOMA and 17-OHP levels (p = 0.016). Conclusions: Adult patients with CAH treated with long-term glucocorticoids are at risk for decreased BMD, increased BMI, and disturbed reproductive function.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

          Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to deficiency of 21-hydroxylase is a disorder of the adrenal cortex characterised by cortisol deficiency, with or without aldosterone deficiency, and androgen excess. Patients with the most severe form also have abnormalities of the adrenal medulla and epinephrine deficiency. The severe classic form occurs in one in 15,000 births worldwide, and the mild non-classic form is a common cause of hyperandrogenism. Neonatal screening for CAH and gene-specific prenatal diagnosis are now possible. Standard hormone replacement fails to achieve normal growth and development for many children with CAH, and adults can experience iatrogenic Cushing's syndrome, hyperandrogenism, infertility, or the development of the metabolic syndrome. This Seminar reviews the epidemiology, genetics, pathophysiology, diagnosis, and management of CAH, and provides an overview of clinical challenges and future therapies.
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            Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia due to 21-Hydroxylase Deficiency

             P C White (2000)
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              Clinical Use of Bone Densitometry

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2007
                May 2007
                14 December 2006
                : 67
                : 6
                : 268-276
                Affiliations
                Departments of aEndocrinology and Reproductive Medicine, bPediatric Endocrinology, cPhysiology, and dPediatric Surgery, Necker Hospital, AP-HP, Paris V University, Paris, France
                Article
                98017 Horm Res 2007;67:268–276
                10.1159/000098017
                17170529
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 32, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

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