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      Hormonal Orchestration of Bud Dormancy Cycle in Deciduous Woody Perennials


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          Woody perennials enter seasonal dormancy to avoid unfavorable environmental conditions. Plant hormones are the critical mediators regulating this complex process, which is subject to the influence of many internal and external factors. Over the last two decades, our knowledge of hormone-mediated dormancy has increased considerably, primarily due to advancements in molecular biology, omics, and bioinformatics. These advancements have enabled the elucidation of several aspects of hormonal regulation associated with bud dormancy in various deciduous tree species. Plant hormones interact with each other extensively in a context-dependent manner. The dormancy-associated MADS (DAM) transcription factors appear to enable hormones and other internal signals associated with the transition between different phases of bud dormancy. These proteins likely hold a great potential in deciphering the underlying mechanisms of dormancy initiation, maintenance, and release. In this review, a recent understanding of the roles of plant hormones, their cross talks, and their potential interactions with DAM proteins during dormancy is discussed.

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          Abscisic acid biosynthesis and catabolism.

          The level of abscisic acid (ABA) in any particular tissue in a plant is determined by the rate of biosynthesis and catabolism of the hormone. Therefore, identifying all the genes involved in the metabolism is essential for a complete understanding of how this hormone directs plant growth and development. To date, almost all the biosynthetic genes have been identified through the isolation of auxotrophic mutants. On the other hand, among several ABA catabolic pathways, current genomic approaches revealed that Arabidopsis CYP707A genes encode ABA 8'-hydroxylases, which catalyze the first committed step in the predominant ABA catabolic pathway. Identification of ABA metabolic genes has revealed that multiple metabolic steps are differentially regulated to fine-tune the ABA level at both transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Furthermore, recent ongoing studies have given new insights into the regulation and site of ABA metabolism in relation to its physiological roles.
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            Cytokinins: activity, biosynthesis, and translocation.

            Cytokinins (CKs) play a crucial role in various phases of plant growth and development, but the basic molecular mechanisms of their biosynthesis and signal transduction only recently became clear. The progress was achieved by identifying a series of key genes encoding enzymes and proteins controlling critical steps in biosynthesis, translocation, and signaling. Basic schemes for CK homeostasis and root/shoot communication at the whole-plant level can now be devised. This review summarizes recent findings on the relationship between CK structural variation and activity, distinct features in CK biosynthesis between higher plants and Agrobacterium infected plants, CK translocation at whole-plant and cellular levels, and CKs as signaling molecules for nutrient status via root-shoot communication.
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              Molecular aspects of seed dormancy.

              Seed dormancy provides a mechanism for plants to delay germination until conditions are optimal for survival of the next generation. Dormancy release is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and competing effects. Molecular studies of dormancy have correlated changes in transcriptomes, proteomes, and hormone levels with dormancy states ranging from deep primary or secondary dormancy to varying degrees of release. The balance of abscisic acid (ABA):gibberellin (GA) levels and sensitivity is a major, but not the sole, regulator of dormancy status. ABA promotes dormancy induction and maintenance, whereas GA promotes progression from release through germination; environmental signals regulate this balance by modifying the expression of biosynthetic and catabolic enzymes. Mediators of environmental and hormonal response include both positive and negative regulators, many of which are feedback-regulated to enhance or attenuate the response. The net result is a slightly heterogeneous response, thereby providing more temporal options for successful germination.

                Author and article information

                Front Plant Sci
                Front Plant Sci
                Front. Plant Sci.
                Frontiers in Plant Science
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                18 September 2019
                : 10
                : 1136
                [1]Alson H. Smith Jr. Agricultural Research and Extension Center, School of Plant and Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech , Winchester, VA, United States
                Author notes

                Edited by: Michael James Considine, University of Western Australia, Australia

                Reviewed by: Gabino Ríos, Instituto Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Spain; Hisayo Yamane, Kyoto University, Japan

                *Correspondence: Sherif M. Sherif, ssherif@ 123456vt.edu

                This article was submitted to Plant Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Plant Science

                Copyright © 2019 Liu and Sherif

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 28 June 2019
                : 19 August 2019
                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 221, Pages: 21, Words: 12372
                Plant Science

                Plant science & Botany
                phytohormones,woody species,bud dormancy,endodormancy,dam genes,hormone signaling


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