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      Traditional ancient Egyptian medicine: A review


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          The ancient Egyptians practiced medicine with highly professional methods. They had advanced knowledge of anatomy and surgery. Also, they treated a lot of diseases including dental, gynecological, gastrointestinal, and urinary disorders. They could diagnose diabetes and cancer. The used therapeutics extended from different plants to include several animal products and minerals. Some of these plants are still used in the present day. Fortunately, they documented their life details by carving on stone, clay, or papyri. Although a lot of these records have been lost or destroyed, the surviving documents represent a huge source of knowledge in different scientific aspects including medicine. This review article is an attempt to understand some information about traditional medicine in ancient Egypt, we will look closely at some basics, sources of information of Egyptian medicine in addition to common treated diseases and therapeutics in this great civilization.

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          Medicinal plants: traditions of yesterday and drugs of tomorrow.

          Plants have provided Man with all his needs in terms of shelter, clothing, food, flavours and fragrances as not the least, medicines. Plants have formed the basis of sophisticated traditional medicine systems among which are Ayurvedic, Unani, Chinese amongst others. These systems of medicine have given rise to some important drugs still in use today. Among the lesser-known systems of medicines are the African and Australian, Central and South American amongst others. The search for new molecules, nowadays, has taken a slightly different route where the science of ethnobotany and ethnopharmacognosy are being used as guide to lead the chemist towards different sources and classes of compounds. It is in this context that the flora of the tropics by virtue of its diversity has a significant role to play in being able to provide new leads. Nonetheless the issue of sovereignty and property rights should also be addressed in line with the Convention for Biological Diversity (CBD). This paper highlights the above, provides an overview of the classes of molecules present in plants and gives some examples of the types of molecules and secondary metabolites that have led to the development of these pharmacologically active extracts. The paper also presents some data on the use of plant products in the development of functional foods, addresses the needs for validation of plant extracts and always stressing on safety, efficacy and quality of phyto-medications.
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            Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A Review of the Natural Constituents

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              Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.): An overview

              Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) is a well-known medicinal plant species from the Asteraceae family often referred to as the “star among medicinal species.” Nowadays it is a highly favored and much used medicinal plant in folk and traditional medicine. Its multitherapeutic, cosmetic, and nutritional values have been established through years of traditional and scientific use and research. Chamomile has an established domestic (Indian) and international market, which is increasing day by day. The plant available in the market many a times is adulterated and substituted by close relatives of chamomile. This article briefly reviews the medicinal uses along with botany and cultivation techniques. Since chamomile is a rich source of natural products, details on chemical constituents of essential oil and plant parts as well as their pharmacological properties are included. Furthermore, particular emphasis is given to the biochemistry, biotechnology, market demand, and trade of the plant. This is an attempt to compile and document information on different aspects of chamomile and highlight the need for research and development.

                Author and article information

                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi J Biol Sci
                Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences
                19 June 2021
                October 2021
                19 June 2021
                : 28
                : 10
                : 5823-5832
                [a ]Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Al-Azhar University, Cairo 11371, Egypt
                [b ]Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, AlMaarefa University, Ad Diriyah, Riyadh 13713, Saudi Arabia
                [c ]Pharmaceutical Medicinal Chemistry & Drug Design Department, Faculty of Pharmacy (Boys), Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
                [d ]Department of Natural and Microbial Products Chemistry, Division of Pharmaceutical and Drug Industries Research, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt
                [e ]College of Pharmacy, Liaoning University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, 77 Life One Road, Dalian Economic and Technical Development Zone, Dalian 116600, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding authors at: Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Pharmacy, AlMaarefa University, Ad Diriyah, Riyadh 13713, Saudi Arabia. mghoneim@ 123456mcst.edu.sa deqiangdou@ 123456126.com
                © 2021 The Author(s)

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                : 25 March 2021
                : 6 June 2021
                : 13 June 2021

                the ancient egyptians,traditional medicine,egyptian medicine


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