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      Accounting for One Health: Insights from the social sciences Translated title: Rendre compte de One Health : réflexions issues des sciences sociales

      1 , *

      Parasite

      EDP Sciences

      One Health, Political Sociology, Science studies, Watchword

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          Abstract

          This paper discusses the relationship between One Health (OH) and the social sciences. Using a comparison between three narratives of the history of OH, it is argued that OH can be studied as a social phenomenon. The narrative of OH by its promoters (folk narratives) emphasizes two dimensions: OH as a renewal of veterinary medicine and OH as an institutional response to global health crises. Narratives from empirical social science work explore similar dimensions, but make them more complex. For political sociology, OH is the result of negotiations between the three international organisations (WHO, OIE and FAO), in a context of a global health crisis, which led to the reconfiguration of their respective mandates and scope of action: OH is a response to an institutional crisis. For the sociology of science, OH testifies to the evolution of the profession and veterinary science, enabling it to position itself as a promoter of interdisciplinarity, in a context of convergence between research and policy. In the Discussion section, I propose an approach to OH as an “epistemic watchword”: a concept whose objective is to make several actors work together (watchword), in a particular direction, that of the production of knowledge (epistemic).

          Translated abstract

          Cet article aborde les rapports entre One Health (OH - « une santé » en français) et les sciences sociales. L’idée que OH peut être étudié comme un phénomène social est défendue, au moyen d’une comparaison entre trois narrations de l’histoire de OH. La narration de OH par ses promoteurs (narrations indigènes) insiste sur deux dimensions : OH comme renouveau de la médecine vétérinaire et OH comme réponse institutionnelle à des crises sanitaires. Les narrations issues de travaux empiriques en sciences sociales explorent des dimensions similaires, mais les rendent plus complexes. Pour la sociologie politique, OH est le résultat d’une négociation entre les trois organisations internationales (OMS, OIE et FAO), dans un contexte de crise sanitaire globale, ayant amené à reconfigurer leurs mandats et leurs périmètres d’action respectifs : OH est une réponse à une crise institutionnelle. Pour la sociologie des sciences, OH témoigne des évolutions de la profession et de la science vétérinaire, permettant à celle-ci de se placer en position de promotrice de l’interdisciplinarité, dans un contexte de rapprochement entre recherche et action publique. Dans la partie « discussion », je proposerai d’aborder OH comme un « mot d’ordre épistémique » : un concept dont l’objectif est de faire travailler plusieurs acteurs ensemble (mot d’ordre), dans un sens particulier, celui de la production de savoirs (épistémique).

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          Most cited references 73

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          Boundary-Work and the Demarcation of Science from Non-Science: Strains and Interests in Professional Ideologies of Scientists

           Thomas Gieryn (1983)
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            Interdisciplinarity: A Critical Assessment

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              More than one world, more than one health: re-configuring interspecies health.

              'One World One Health' (OWOH), 'One Medicine' and 'One Health' are all injunctions to work across the domains of veterinary, human and environmental health. In large part they are institutional responses to growing concerns regarding shared health risks at the human, animal and environmental interfaces. Although these efforts to work across disciplinary boundaries are welcome, there are also risks in seeking unity, not least the tendency of one health visions to reduce diversity and to under-value the local, contingent and practical engagements that make health possible. This paper uses insights from Geography and Science and Technology Studies along with multi-sited and multi-species qualitative fieldwork on animal livestock and zoonotic influenzas in the UK, to highlight the importance of those practical engagements. After an introduction to one health, I argue that there is a tendency in OWOH visions to focus on contamination and transmission of pathogens rather than the socio-economic configuration of disease and health, and this tendency conforms to or performs what sociologist John Law calls a one world metaphysics. Following this, three related field cases are used to demonstrate that health is dependent upon a patchwork of practices, and is configured in practice by skilled people, animals, micro-organisms and their social relations. From surveillance for influenza viruses to tending animals, good health it turns out is dependent on an ability to construct common sense from a complex of signs, responses and actions. It takes, in other words, more than one world to make healthy outcomes. In light of this, the paper aims to, first, loosen any association between OWOH and a one world-ist metaphysics, and, second, to radicalize the inter-disciplinary foundations of OWOH by both widening the scope of disciplinarity as well as attending to how different knowledges are brought together.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Parasite
                Parasite
                parasite
                Parasite
                EDP Sciences
                1252-607X
                1776-1042
                2020
                03 November 2020
                : 27
                : ( publisher-idID: parasite/2020/01 )
                Affiliations
                UMR Triangle – ENS de Lyon site Descartes, Bat D4 (recherche) – 2ème étage 15 parvis René Descartes 69342 Lyon cedex 07 – France
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: jerome.michalon@ 123456ens-lyon.fr
                Article
                parasite200053 10.1051/parasite/2020056
                10.1051/parasite/2020056
                7608981
                33141659
                © J. Michalon, published by EDP Sciences, 2020

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 65, Pages: 10
                Categories
                Special Issue – One Health: A social science discussion of a global agenda. Invited Editors: Jean Estebanez & Pascal Boireau
                Research Article

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