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      SPAK Dependent Regulation of Peptide Transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: SPAK (STE20-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) is a powerful regulator of renal tubular ion transport and blood pressure. Moreover, SPAK contributes to the regulation of cell volume. Little is known, however, about a role of SPAK in the regulation or organic solutes. The present study thus addressed the influence of SPAK on the peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2. Methods: To this end, cRNA encoding PEPT1 or PEPT2 were injected into Xenopus laevis oocytes without or with additional injection of cRNA encoding wild-type, SPAK, WNK1 insensitive inactive <sup>T233A</sup>SPAK, constitutively active <sup>T233E</sup>SPAK, and catalytically inactive <sup>D212A</sup>SPAK. Electrogenic peptide (glycine-glycine) transport was determined by dual electrode voltage clamp and PEPT2 protein abundance in the cell membrane by chemiluminescence. Intestinal electrogenic peptide transport was estimated from peptide induced current in Ussing chamber experiments of jejunal segments isolated from gene targeted mice expressing SPAK resistant to WNK-dependent activation ( spak<sup> tg/tg</sup>) and respective wild-type mice ( spak<sup> +/+</sup>). Results: In PEPT1 and in PEPT2 expressing oocytes, but not in oocytes injected with water, the dipeptide gly-gly (2 mM) generated an inward current, which was significantly decreased following coexpression of SPAK. The effect of SPAK on PEPT1 was mimicked by <sup>T233E</sup>SPAK, but not by <sup>D212A</sup>SPAK or <sup>T233A</sup>SPAK. SPAK decreased maximal peptide induced current of PEPT1. Moreover, SPAK decreased carrier protein abundance in the cell membrane of PEPT2 expressing oocytes. In intestinal segments gly-gly generated a current, which was significantly higher in spak<sup> tg/tg</sup> than in spak<sup> +/+</sup> mice. Conclusion: SPAK is a powerful regulator of peptide transporters PEPT1 and PEPT2.

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          Most cited references 56

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          Human hypertension caused by mutations in WNK kinases.

           Z Farfel,  B Dussol,  D. Simon (2001)
          Hypertension is a major public health problem of largely unknown cause. Here, we identify two genes causing pseudohypoaldosteronism type II, a Mendelian trait featuring hypertension, increased renal salt reabsorption, and impaired K+ and H+ excretion. Both genes encode members of the WNK family of serine-threonine kinases. Disease-causing mutations in WNK1 are large intronic deletions that increase WNK1 expression. The mutations in WNK4 are missense, which cluster in a short, highly conserved segment of the encoded protein. Both proteins localize to the distal nephron, a kidney segment involved in salt, K+, and pH homeostasis. WNK1 is cytoplasmic, whereas WNK4 localizes to tight junctions. The WNK kinases and their associated signaling pathway(s) may offer new targets for the development of antihypertensive drugs.
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            The WNK1 and WNK4 protein kinases that are mutated in Gordon's hypertension syndrome phosphorylate and activate SPAK and OSR1 protein kinases.

            Mutations in the human genes encoding WNK1 [with no K (lysine) protein kinase-1] and the related protein kinase WNK4 are the cause of Gordon's hypertension syndrome. Little is known about the molecular mechanism by which WNK isoforms regulate cellular processes. We immunoprecipitated WNK1 from extracts of rat testis and found that it was specifically associated with a protein kinase of the STE20 family termed 'STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase' (SPAK). We demonstrated that WNK1 and WNK4 both interacted with SPAK as well as a closely related kinase, termed 'oxidative stress response kinase-1' (OSR1). Wildtype (wt) but not catalytically inactive WNK1 and WNK4 phosphorylated SPAK and OSR1 to a much greater extent than with other substrates utilized previously, such as myelin basic protein and claudin-4. Phosphorylation by WNK1 or WNK4 markedly increased SPAK and OSR1 activity. Phosphopeptide mapping studies demonstrated that WNK1 phosphorylated kinase-inactive SPAK and OSR1 at an equivalent residue located within the T-loop of the catalytic domain (Thr233 in SPAK, Thr185 in OSR1) and a serine residue located within a C-terminal non-catalytic region (Ser373 in SPAK, Ser325 in OSR1). Mutation of Thr185 to alanine prevented the activation of OSR1 by WNK1, whereas mutation of Thr185 to glutamic acid (to mimic phosphorylation) increased the basal activity of OSR1 over 20-fold and prevented further activation by WNK1. Mutation of Ser325 in OSR1 to alanine or glutamic acid did not affect the basal activity of OSR1 or its ability to be activated by WNK1. These findings suggest that WNK isoforms operate as protein kinases that activate SPAK and OSR1 by phosphorylating the T-loops of these enzymes, resulting in their activation. Our analysis also describes the first facile assay that can be employed to quantitatively assess WNK1 and WNK4 activity.
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              Functional interactions of the SPAK/OSR1 kinases with their upstream activator WNK1 and downstream substrate NKCC1.

              The SPAK (STE20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase) and OSR1 (oxidative stress-responsive kinase-1) kinases interact and phosphorylate NKCC1 (Na+-K+-2Cl- co-transporter-1), leading to its activation. Recent studies indicated that SPAK and OSR1 are phosphorylated and activated by the WNK1 [with no K (lysine) protein kinase-1] and WNK4, genes mutated in humans affected by Gordon's hypertension syndrome. In the present study, we have identified three residues in NKCC1 (Thr175/Thr179/Thr184 in shark or Thr203/Thr207/Thr212 in human) that are phosphorylated by SPAK and OSR1, and have developed a peptide substrate, CATCHtide (cation chloride co-transporter peptide substrate), to assess SPAK and OSR1 activity. Exposure of HEK-293 (human embryonic kidney) cells to osmotic stress, which leads to phosphorylation and activation of NKCC1, increased phosphorylation of NKCC1 at the sites targeted by SPAK/OSR1. The residues on NKCC1, phosphorylated by SPAK/OSR1, are conserved in other cation co-transporters, such as the Na+-Cl- co-transporter, the target of thiazide drugs that lower blood pressure in humans with Gordon's syndrome. Furthermore, we characterize the properties of a 92-residue CCT (conserved C-terminal) domain on SPAK and OSR1 that interacts with an RFXV (Arg-Phe-Xaa-Val) motif present in the substrate NKCC1 and its activators WNK1/WNK4. A peptide containing the RFXV motif interacts with nanomolar affinity with the CCT domains of SPAK/OSR1 and can be utilized to affinity-purify SPAK and OSR1 from cell extracts. Mutation of the arginine, phenylalanine or valine residue within this peptide abolishes binding to SPAK/OSR1. We have identified specific residues within the CCT domain that are required for interaction with the RFXV motif and have demonstrated that mutation of these in OSR1 inhibited phosphorylation of NKCC1, but not of CATCHtide which does not possess an RFXV motif. We establish that an intact CCT domain is required for WNK1 to efficiently phosphorylate and activate OSR1. These data establish that the CCT domain functions as a multipurpose docking site, enabling SPAK/OSR1 to interact with substrates (NKCC1) and activators (WNK1/WNK4).
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2014
                November 2014
                30 October 2014
                : 39
                : 4
                : 388-398
                Affiliations
                Department of Physiology I, University of Tübingen, Gmelinstr. 5, 70276 Tübingen, Germany
                Author notes
                *Prof. Dr. Florian Lang, Department of Physiology, University of Tübingen, Gmelinstr. 5, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany), Tel. +49 7071/2972194, Fax +49 7071/295618, E-Mail florian.lang@uni-tuebingen.de
                Article
                368451 Kidney Blood Press Res 2014;39:388-398
                10.1159/000368451
                25376088
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Pages: 11
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Peptide transport, Knockout mice, Intestine, Cell volume

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