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      Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classic Definitions and New Directions

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      Contemporary Educational Psychology
      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Intrinsic and extrinsic types of motivation have been widely studied, and the distinction between them has shed important light on both developmental and educational practices. In this review we revisit the classic definitions of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation in light of contemporary research and theory. Intrinsic motivation remains an important construct, reflecting the natural human propensity to learn and assimilate. However, extrinsic motivation is argued to vary considerably in its relative autonomy and thus can either reflect external control or true self-regulation. The relations of both classes of motives to basic human needs for autonomy, competence and relatedness are discussed. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Contemporary Educational Psychology
          Contemporary Educational Psychology
          Elsevier BV
          0361476X
          January 2000
          January 2000
          : 25
          : 1
          : 54-67
          Article
          10.1006/ceps.1999.1020
          10620381
          c87174be-ec72-4b6d-9859-1858431e4005
          © 2000

          https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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