Two patients on maintenance hemodialysis after terminal renal failure due to nephrotic syndrome and biopsy-proven focal-segmental glomerulosclerosis received three cadaver renal allografts. Immediate recurrence of nephrotic syndrome was observed. In two transplants immunosuppression consisted of ciclosporin A and low-dose steroids. One patient was unsuccessfully treated with immunoadsorption after the second transplant. All grafts were lost because of uncontrolled nephrotic syndrome. Renal allograft biopsy specimens showed findings indicating recurrence of the original disease.