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      Migratory round-trip of individually identified humpback whales at the Strait of Magellan: clues on transit times and phylopatry to destinations Translated title: Ciclo migratorio de ballenas jorobadas individualizadas del estrecho de Magallanes: indicios sobre la duración de la migración y filopatría en los destinos

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          Abstract

          Humpback whales undertake seasonal migration between productive high-latitude areas where they feed in summer and low-latitude tropical waters where mating and calving occur during winter. In the eastern south Pacific, the species breeds off Colombia and Ecuador, and feeds primarily in the western Antarctic Peninsula and in the waters of the Strait of Magellan (SM), recently described as a new feeding ground for humpback whales. Comparison of fluke photographs of 62 individuals from the SM obtained during the austral summer from 1999 to 2005 and 1,042 individuals from Colombia, provided conclusive matches for six individuals, with an overall interchange Índex of 0.093. Eight migratory trips between summer and winter grounds were registered for four whales during a complete migratory round-trip in consecutive years. The mínimum distance traveled in a one-way trip ranged from 6,650 to 7,000 km. The duration of the two fastest trips between these migratory destinations was 88 and 99 days, with a mean speed of migration of 76 and 67 km day-1 respectively. Five of the whales present in both areas were males and three mitochondrial DNA haplotypes were identified: EM-1 for three individuals, EM-2 for two and EM-3 for the last one, all of which have been previously described for humpback whales from Colombia. All six individuals were seen several days in each season in the SM (as many as 39 days in one case), with an average stay of 72 ± 40 days (n = 20) per year, ranging from 3 to 125 days. On average, each of the six individuals was seen in the SM during 71 ± 18 % of the seven monitored summers. Three individuals were re-sighted in the SM six out of the seven surveyed years, during four to six consecutive years. These results provide the first direct evidence to include humpback whales that feed in the Strait of Magellan as part of the eastern south Pacific population of whales that feed off Colombian waters.

          Translated abstract

          La ballena jorobada migra estacionalmente entre latitudes altas donde se alimenta en verano y latitudes bajas donde cría y se aparea en invierno. En el Pacífico sureste, la especie se reproduce en Colombia y Ecuador y se alimenta principalmente al oeste de la península Antartica, y en el estrecho de Magallanes (EM) recientemente descrito como nueva área de alimentación. Al comparar las fotografías de las colas de 62 ballenas individualizadas en el EM durante el verano austral entre 1999 y 2005 con 1.042 individuos de Colombia, se encontró a seis individuos comunes, lo que representa un índice de Intercambio migratorio de 0,093. Se registraron ocho migraciones para cuatro de estas ballenas entre el EM y Colombia en el ciclo migratorio de años consecutivos. La distancia mínima recorrida en una sola dirección varió entre 6.650 y 7.000 km. La duración de los dos viajes más rápidos registrados entre estos dos destinos fue de 88 y 99 días, con una velocidad promedio de migración de 76 y 67 km día-1 respectivamente. Cinco de las seis ballenas comunes entre las areas fueron machos. Entre las seis ballenas se encontraron tres haplotipos de ADN mitocondrial todos descritos previamente en ballenas jorobadas de Colombia: tres ballenas con el haplotipo EM-1, dos con el EM-2 y uno con el EM-3. Los seis individuos se avistaron reiteradamente en el EM (hasta 39 días en una estación en un caso), con una permanencia promedio de 72 ± 40 días (n = 20) por año y un rango entre 3 y 125 días. En promedio, estas seis ballenas se vieron durante el 71 ± 18 % de las siete temporadas muestreadas en el EM y tres se registraron seis de lo siete años estudiados, por 4-6 años consecutivos. Esta es la primera evidencia directa para incluir las ballenas jorobadas que se alimentan en el estrecho de Magallanes como parte de la población del Pacífico sureste que se reproduce en aguas colombianas.

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          Most cited references 61

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          Positional effect of single bulge nucleotide on PNA(peptide nucleic acid)/DNA hybrid stability

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            A Biopsy System for Large Whales and Its Use for Cytogenetics

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              Seasonal occurrence and annual return of humpback whales, Megaptera novaeangliae, in the southern Gulf of Maine

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
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                Journal
                rchnat
                Revista chilena de historia natural
                Rev. chil. hist. nat.
                Sociedad de Biología de Chile (Santiago )
                0716-078X
                December 2008
                : 81
                : 4
                : 547-560
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Fundación Yubarta Colombia
                [2 ] Whale Sound Limitada Chile
                [3 ] Universidad de Magallanes Chile
                [4 ] Fundación Sentir Colombia
                [5 ] Universidad de Chile Chile
                [6 ] Universidad Santo Tomás Colombia
                [7 ] Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile Chile
                Article
                S0716-078X2008000400008
                10.4067/S0716-078X2008000400008

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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                Categories
                BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION
                ECOLOGY

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