In human cultured monocytic cells stimulated by cytokines, CD43 was demonstrated to exhibit a modification of sialylated epitopes (dys-sialylation) [Soler et al: Leukoc Biol 1997;61:609–618]. Therefore, we chose to investigate CD43 behavior on patients who present pathological status implicating monocytes after renal graft (KTR). We performed flow cytometry after immune staining using monoclonal antibodies to CD43 sialic acid-dependent (L60) and -independent (L10) epitopes. Compared to normal controls, mean fluorescence intensity was never altered on lymphocytes. Conversely, on monocytes, we found different profiles with L60: 26% of patients having normal CD43 expression, 54% displayed decreased values and 20% had a double population of monocytes, the major one being normal and the minor one with a very low staining. Decreased values were more frequent among KTR during the first 3 months following transplantation. L10 immunostaining was not altered on monocytes in patients with low values of CD43 staining by L60, confirming that the mechanism involved was a CD43 dys-sialylation. We investigated a possible role of cyclosporin (CsA) on human monocytic (THP-1) and lymphoid (Jurkat) cell lines. CsA decreases CD43 expression in monocytic and not in lymphoid cell lines and could be responsible for the specific dys-sialylation of KTR monocytes. Whatever, CD43 dys-sialylation might lead to functional abnormalities of monocytes in KTR, possibly involving the adhesion process.