Recent studies revealed an additive cardiodepressive effect of polymorphonuclear granulocytes (PMN) and thrombocytes in hearts exposed to a no-flow ischemia. To find out whether or not this is also true for isolated guinea pig hearts exposed to a low-flow ischemia, the current study was performed. PMN or thrombocytes, together or separately, were applied as a 1-min bolus (1,000/µl or 20,000/µl, respectively) during ischemia or in reperfusion in the presence of thrombin (0.3 U/ml perfusate). Recovery of external heart work and intracoronary cell retention were quantified in percent. Sole application of PMN or platelets during ischemia and reperfusion significantly compromised myocardial function, whereas coapplication of PMN and platelets did not exhibit any further cardiodepressive effect. Coapplication of cells almost prevented intracoronary platelet retention during ischemia and in reperfusion, as opposed to sole platelet application. Known blockers of endogenously released anti-platelet substances like nitric oxide, PGI<sub>2</sub> or adenosine did not mediate a further aggravation of myocardial dysfunction. The platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonist WEB 2170 BS, however, significantly improved recovery of external heart work during ischemia and in reperfusion. This indicates that an additive cardiodepressive effect of PMN and platelets in working guinea pig hearts exposed to a low-flow ischemia, cannot be demonstrated, whereas PAF antagonists seem to be cardioprotective, under these conditions. Even addition of fibrinogen to the perfusate, did not show an additive cardiodepressive effect of coapplication of PMN and platelets.