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      Adipose tissue macrophages: going off track during obesity

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          Abstract

          Inflammation originating from the adipose tissue is considered to be one of the main driving forces for the development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes in obese individuals. Although a plethora of different immune cells shapes adipose tissue inflammation, this review is specifically focused on the contribution of macrophages that reside in adipose tissue in lean and obese conditions. Both conventional and tissue-specific functions of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) in lean and obese adipose tissue are discussed and linked with metabolic and inflammatory changes that occur during the development of obesity. Furthermore, we will address various circulating and adipose tissue-derived triggers that may be involved in shaping the ATM phenotype and underlie ATM function in lean and obese conditions. Finally, we will highlight how these changes affect adipose tissue inflammation and may be targeted for therapeutic interventions to improve insulin sensitivity in obese individuals.

          Highlights
          • Macrophages play a significant role in regulating adipose tissue functioning during health and disease
          • In addition to conventional functions such as clearing cellular debris and participating in tissue immune surveillance, lipid buffering is an important function of ATMs
          • Obesity-induced inflammation, characterised by an elevated number of proinflammatory macrophages in adipose tissue, has been suggested to contribute to systemic insulin resistance
          • Their origin, as well as a combination of peripheral changes and adipose tissue-derived stressors, probably contribute to ATM dysfunction and inflammatory traits during obesity
          • Identification of transcriptional differences between ATMs from lean vs obese adipose tissue at several key points during the development of obesity and insulin resistance may reveal upstream triggers, regulatory factors and intracellular pathways that shape ATM function
          • Targeting metabolic capacity rather than the inflammatory phenotype of ATMs may hold potential to restore ATM function and adipose tissue homeostasis in obese individuals

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          Most cited references 100

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          Global prevalence of diabetes: estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 2030.

          The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. Urban and rural populations were considered separately for developing countries. The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total number of people with diabetes is projected to rise from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. The urban population in developing countries is projected to double between 2000 and 2030. The most important demographic change to diabetes prevalence across the world appears to be the increase in the proportion of people >65 years of age. These findings indicate that the "diabetes epidemic" will continue even if levels of obesity remain constant. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence.
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            Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study.

            Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. The incremental utility of measuring both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in association with metabolic risk factors and underlying heritability has not been well described in a population-based setting. Participants (n=3001) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study (48% women; mean age, 50 years), were free of clinical cardiovascular disease, and underwent multidetector computed tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes between 2002 and 2005. Metabolic risk factors were examined in relation to increments of SAT and VAT after multivariable adjustment. Heritability was calculated using variance-components analysis. Among both women and men, SAT and VAT were significantly associated with blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with increased odds of hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (P range < 0.01). In women, relations between VAT and risk factors were consistently stronger than in men. However, VAT was more strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors than was SAT. For example, among women and men, both SAT and VAT were associated with increased odds of metabolic syndrome. In women, the odds ratio (OR) of metabolic syndrome per 1-standard deviation increase in VAT (OR, 4.7) was stronger than that for SAT (OR, 3.0; P for difference between SAT and VAT < 0.0001); similar differences were noted for men (OR for VAT, 4.2; OR for SAT, 2.5). Furthermore, VAT but not SAT contributed significantly to risk factor variation after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (P < or = 0.01). Among overweight and obese individuals, the prevalence of hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and metabolic syndrome increased linearly and significantly across increasing VAT quartiles. Heritability values for SAT and VAT were 57% and 36%, respectively. Although both SAT and VAT are correlated with metabolic risk factors, VAT remains more strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile even after accounting for standard anthropometric indexes. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of visceral fat as a unique, pathogenic fat depot. Measurement of VAT may provide a more complete understanding of metabolic risk associated with variation in fat distribution.
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              MCP-1 contributes to macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis in obesity.

              Adipocytes secrete a variety of bioactive molecules that affect the insulin sensitivity of other tissues. We now show that the abundance of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) mRNA in adipose tissue and the plasma concentration of MCP-1 were increased both in genetically obese diabetic (db/db) mice and in WT mice with obesity induced by a high-fat diet. Mice engineered to express an MCP-1 transgene in adipose tissue under the control of the aP2 gene promoter exhibited insulin resistance, macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, and increased hepatic triglyceride content. Furthermore, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, and macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue induced by a high-fat diet were reduced extensively in MCP-1 homozygous KO mice compared with WT animals. Finally, acute expression of a dominant-negative mutant of MCP-1 ameliorated insulin resistance in db/db mice and in WT mice fed a high-fat diet. These findings suggest that an increase in MCP-1 expression in adipose tissue contributes to the macrophage infiltration into this tissue, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis associated with obesity in mice.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                rinke.stienstra@wur.nl
                Journal
                Diabetologia
                Diabetologia
                Diabetologia
                Springer Berlin Heidelberg (Berlin/Heidelberg )
                0012-186X
                1432-0428
                3 March 2016
                3 March 2016
                2016
                : 59
                : 879-894
                Affiliations
                [ ]Department of Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, the Netherlands
                [ ]Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 2, 6703 HD Wageningen, the Netherlands
                Article
                3904
                10.1007/s00125-016-3904-9
                4826424
                26940592
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

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                © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

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