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      Correlates associated with participation in physical activity among adults: a systematic review of reviews and update

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          Abstract

          Background

          Understanding which factors influence participation in physical activity is important to improve the public health. The aim of the present review of reviews was to summarize and present updated evidence on personal and environmental factors associated with physical activity.

          Methods

          MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched for reviews published up to 31 Jan . 2017 reporting on potential factors of physical activity in adults aged over 18 years. The quality of each review was appraised with the Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR) checklist. The corrected covered area (CCA) was calculated as a measure of overlap for the primary publications in each review.

          Results

          Twenty-five articles met the inclusion criteria which reviewed 90 personal and 27 environmental factors. The average quality of the studies was moderate, and the CCA ranged from 0 to 4.3%. For personal factors, self-efficacy was shown as the strongest factor for participation in physical activity (7 out of 9). Intention to exercise, outcome expectation, perceived behavioral control and perceived fitness were positively associated with physical activity in more than 3 reviews, while age and bad status of health or fitness were negatively associated with participation in physical activity in more than 3 reviews. For environmental factors, accessibility to facilities, presence of sidewalks, and aesthetics were positively associated with participation in physical activity.

          Conclusions

          The findings of this review of reviews suggest that some personal and environmental factors were related with participation in physical activity. However, an association of various factors with physical activity could not be established because of the lack of primary studies to build up the organized evidence. More studies with a prospective design should be conducted to understand the potential causes for physical activity.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12889-017-4255-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references50

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          Effect of physical inactivity on major non-communicable diseases worldwide: an analysis of burden of disease and life expectancy.

          Strong evidence shows that physical inactivity increases the risk of many adverse health conditions, including major non-communicable diseases such as coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast and colon cancers, and shortens life expectancy. Because much of the world's population is inactive, this link presents a major public health issue. We aimed to quantify the eff ect of physical inactivity on these major non-communicable diseases by estimating how much disease could be averted if inactive people were to become active and to estimate gain in life expectancy at the population level. For our analysis of burden of disease, we calculated population attributable fractions (PAFs) associated with physical inactivity using conservative assumptions for each of the major non-communicable diseases, by country, to estimate how much disease could be averted if physical inactivity were eliminated. We used life-table analysis to estimate gains in life expectancy of the population. Worldwide, we estimate that physical inactivity causes 6% (ranging from 3·2% in southeast Asia to 7·8% in the eastern Mediterranean region) of the burden of disease from coronary heart disease, 7% (3·9-9·6) of type 2 diabetes, 10% (5·6-14·1) of breast cancer, and 10% (5·7-13·8) of colon cancer. Inactivity causes 9% (range 5·1-12·5) of premature mortality, or more than 5·3 million of the 57 million deaths that occurred worldwide in 2008. If inactivity were not eliminated, but decreased instead by 10% or 25%, more than 533 000 and more than 1·3 million deaths, respectively, could be averted every year. We estimated that elimination of physical inactivity would increase the life expectancy of the world's population by 0·68 (range 0·41-0·95) years. Physical inactivity has a major health eff ect worldwide. Decrease in or removal of this unhealthy behaviour could improve health substantially. None.
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            Social Foundations of Thought and Action : A Social Cognitive Theory

            Presents a comprehensive theory of human motivation and action from a social-cognitive perspective. This insightful text addresses the prominent roles played by cognitive, vicarious, self-regulatory, and self-reflective processes in psychosocial functioning; emphasizes reciprocal causation through the interplay of cognitive, behavioral, and environmental factors; and systematically applies the basic principles of this theory to personal and social change.
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              Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence.

              The primary purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the current literature and to provide further insight into the role physical inactivity plays in the development of chronic disease and premature death. We confirm that there is irrefutable evidence of the effectiveness of regular physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) and premature death. We also reveal that the current Health Canada physical activity guidelines are sufficient to elicit health benefits, especially in previously sedentary people. There appears to be a linear relation between physical activity and health status, such that a further increase in physical activity and fitness will lead to additional improvements in health status.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                cksjwjsja@snu.ac.kr
                mylee@kookmin.ac.kr
                docmohw@snu.ac.kr
                dhkang@snu.ac.kr
                +82-2-740-8922 , jiyeob.choi@gmail.com
                Journal
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BMC Public Health
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2458
                24 April 2017
                24 April 2017
                2017
                : 17
                : 356
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, Department of Biomedical Sciences, , Seoul National University Graduate School, ; 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080 Korea
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0788 9816, GRID grid.91443.3b, College of Physical Education and Sport Science, , Kookmin University, ; 77 Jeongneung-ro, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 02707 Korea
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, JW Lee Center for Global Medicine, , Seoul National University College of Medicine, ; 71 Ihwhajang-gil, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03087 Korea
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, Department of Family Medicine, , Seoul National University College of Medicine, ; 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080 Korea
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0302 820X, GRID grid.412484.f, Institute of Environmental Medicine, , Seoul National University Medical Research Center, ; 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080 Korea
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, Department of Preventive Medicine, , Seoul National University College of Medicine, ; 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080 Korea
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0470 5905, GRID grid.31501.36, Cancer Research Institute, , Seoul National University, ; 103 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul, 03080 Korea
                Article
                4255
                10.1186/s12889-017-4255-2
                5404309
                28438146
                c8a480b7-7345-4f49-9f5c-e0174236d173
                © The Author(s). 2017

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                History
                : 20 August 2016
                : 11 April 2017
                Funding
                Funded by: Seoul National University Hospital (KR)
                Award ID: 2016
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100003669, Korea Centers for Disease Control & Prevention;
                Award ID: 2004-E71004-00, 2005-E71011-00, 2005-E71009-00, 2006-E71001-00, 2006-E71004-00, 2006-E71010-00, 2006-E71003-00, 2007-E71004-00, 2007-E71006-00, 2008-E71006-00, 2008-E71008-00, 2009-E71009-00, 2010-E71006-00, 2011-E71006-00, 2012-E71001-00, and 2013-E71009-00
                Award Recipient :
                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Public health
                physical activity,epidemiologic factors,review of reviews
                Public health
                physical activity, epidemiologic factors, review of reviews

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