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      An Overview of Pest Species of Bactrocera Fruit Flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae) and the Integration of Biopesticides with Other Biological Approaches for Their Management with a Focus on the Pacific Region

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          Abstract

          Fruit flies ( Diptera: Tephritidae) are among the most economically important pest species in the world, attacking a wide range of fruits and fleshy vegetables throughout tropical and sub-tropical areas. These species are such devastating crop pests that major control and eradication programs have been developed in various parts of the world to combat them. The array of control methods includes insecticide sprays to foliage and soil, bait-sprays, male annihilation techniques, releases of sterilized flies and parasitoids, and cultural controls. During the twenty first century there has been a trend to move away from control with organophosphate insecticides (e.g., malathion, diazinon, and naled) and towards reduced risk insecticide treatments. In this article we present an overview of 73 pest species in the genus Bactrocera, examine recent developments of reduced risk technologies for their control and explore Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Programs that integrate multiple components to manage these pests in tropical and sub-tropical areas.

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          Synonymization of key pest species within theBactrocera dorsalisspecies complex (Diptera: Tephritidae): taxonomic changes based on a review of 20 years of integrative morphological, molecular, cytogenetic, behavioural and chemoecological data

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            The ecology of Bactrocera tryoni (Diptera: Tephritidae): what do we know to assist pest management?

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              Sexual communication and related behaviours in Tephritidae: current knowledge and potential applications for Integrated Pest Management

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Insects
                Insects
                insects
                Insects
                MDPI
                2075-4450
                03 April 2015
                June 2015
                : 6
                : 2
                : 297-318
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Daniel K. Inouye, U.S. Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture, 64 Nowelo St., Hilo, HI 96720, USA
                [2 ]Cooperative Research and Extension, Lincoln University, 900 Chestnut St., Allen Hall 212, Jefferson City, MO 65101, USA; E-Mail: pineroj@ 123456lincolnu.edu
                [3 ]Department of Plant and Environmental Protection Sciences, College of Tropical Agriculture and Human Resources, University of Hawaii, 3050 Maile Way, Room 310, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA; E-Mail: leblancl@ 123456ctahr.hawaii.edu
                Author notes
                [†]

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: roger.vargas@ 123456ars.usda.gov ; Tel.: +1-808-959-4329; Fax: +1-808-959-5470.
                Article
                insects-06-00297
                10.3390/insects6020297
                4553480
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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