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      Physical Activity and Cervical Cancer Testing Among American Indian Women : Physical Activity and Cancer Testing

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          Abstract

          <div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S1"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d7208940e185">Purpose</h5> <p id="P1">Studies have shown that women who engage in high levels of physical activity have higher rates of cancer screening, including Papanicalaou (Pap) tests. Because American Indian (AI) women are at high risk for cervical cancer morbidity and mortality, we examined Pap screening prevalence and assessed whether physical activity was associated with screening adherence among AI women from 2 culturally distinct regions in the Northern Plains and the Southwest. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S2"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d7208940e190">Methods</h5> <p id="P2">A total of 1,979 AI women at least 18 years of age participating in a cross-sectional cohort study reported whether they received a Pap test within the previous 3 years. Physical activity level was expressed as total metabolic equivalent (MET) scores and grouped into quartiles. We used binary logistic regression to model the association of Pap testing and MET quartile, adjusting for demographic and health factors. </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S3"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d7208940e195">Findings</h5> <p id="P3">Overall, 60% of women received a Pap test within the previous 3 years. After controlling for covariates, increased physical activity was associated with higher odds of Pap screening (OR = 1.1 per increase in MET quartile; 95% CI = 1.1, 1.2). </p> </div><div class="section"> <a class="named-anchor" id="S4"> <!-- named anchor --> </a> <h5 class="section-title" id="d7208940e200">Conclusions</h5> <p id="P4">This is the first study to examine physical activity patterns and receipt of cancer screening in AIs. While recent Pap testing was more common among physically active AI women, prevalence was still quite low in all subgroups. Efforts are needed to increase awareness of the importance of cervical cancer screening among AI women. </p> </div>

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          Most cited references 21

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          Annual report to the nation on the status of cancer, 1975-2003, featuring cancer among U.S. Hispanic/Latino populations.

          The American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Cancer Institute, and North American Association of Central Cancer Registries collaborate annually to provide U.S. cancer information, this year featuring the first comprehensive compilation of cancer information for U.S. Latinos. Cancer incidence was obtained from 90% of the Hispanic/Latino and 82% of the U.S. populations. Cancer deaths were obtained for the entire U.S. population. Cancer screening, risk factor, incidence, and mortality data were compiled for Latino and non-Latino adults and children (incidence only). Long-term (1975-2003) and fixed-interval (1995-2003) trends and comparative analyses by disease stage, urbanicity, and area poverty were evaluated. The long-term trend in overall cancer death rates, declining since the early 1990s, continued through 2003 for all races and both sexes combined. However, female lung cancer incidence rates increased from 1975 to 2003, decelerating since 1991 and breast cancer incidence rates stabilized from 2001 to 2003. Latinos had lower incidence rates in 1999-2003 for most cancers, but higher rates for stomach, liver, cervix, and myeloma (females) than did non-Latino white populations. Latino children have higher incidence of leukemia, retinoblastoma, osteosarcoma, and germ-cell tumors than do non-Latino white children. For several common cancers, Latinos were less likely than non-Latinos to be diagnosed at localized stages. The lower cancer rates observed in Latino immigrants could be sustained by maintenance of healthy behaviors. Some infection-related cancers in Latinos could be controlled by evidence-based interventions. Affordable, culturally sensitive, linguistically appropriate, and timely access to cancer information, prevention, screening, and treatment are important in Latino outreach and community networks.
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            Predictors of colorectal cancer screening participation in the United States.

            Our aim was to identify predictors of colorectal cancer screening in the United States and subgroups with particularly low rates of screening. The responses to a telephone-administered questionnaire of a nationally representative sample of 61,068 persons aged >/=50 yr were analyzed. Current screening was defined as either sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy in the preceding 5 years or fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) in the preceding year, or both. Overall, current colorectal cancer screening was reported by 43.4% (sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy by 22.8%, FOBT by 9.9%, and both by 10.7%). The lowest rates of screening were reported by the following subgroups: those aged 50-54 yr (31.2%), Hispanics (31.2%), Asian/Pacific Islanders (34.8%), those with education less than the ninth grade (34.4%), no health care coverage (20.4%), or coverage by Medicaid (29.2%), those who had no routine doctor's visit in the last year (20.3%), and every-day smokers (32.1%). The most important modifiable predictors of current colorectal cancer screening were health care coverage (OR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.5-1.9) and a routine doctor's visit in the last year (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 3.2-3.8). FOBT was more common in women than in men (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.6-2.0); sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy was more common in Hispanics (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.7) and Asian/Pacific Islanders (OR = 2.4, 95% = CI 1.5-3.9) relative to whites, in persons without routine doctor's visits in the preceding year (OR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.8-4), and in persons with poor self-reported health (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.2-1.5). Interventions should be developed to improve screening for the subgroups who reported the lowest screening rates. Such interventions may incorporate individual screening strategy preferences.
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              Concordance of self-reported data and medical record audit for six cancer screening procedures.

              Self-reported data about the interval since last cancer screening are often used to determine whether individuals are due for periodic screening and to monitor adherence to guidelines for early cancer detection. In a study conducted within the Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, we examined the concordance of self-reported information and medical record documentation about recency of and reasons for six procedures for early cancer detection. We also assessed the concordance of population-level estimates of screening rates based on these two sources. Data were obtained from a mailed questionnaire or telephone interview completed by 779 men and women. The data from these randomly selected study participants (431 women and 348 men), who had been members of the health plan for the previous 5 years, were compared with information obtained from their medical charts. Intersource agreement about whether each procedure was done within the last 2 years was evaluated, with the medical record used as the gold standard. To assess the accuracy of patient self-reporting, we also calculated sensitivity, false-positive and false-negative results, and Kappa statistics. Concordance between self-reported data and medical record documentation was greater for procedures that generated a test report (mammogram, Pap smear, fecal occult blood test, and sigmoidoscopy) than for those generating a physician's note (clinical breast examination and digital rectal examination). Kappa statistics showed a similar pattern. Sensitivity of self-reported data was more than 90% for mammogram, clinical breast examination, Pap smear, and fecal occult blood test and nearly 80% for sigmoidoscopy and digital rectal examination. However, false-positive results were above 40%, except for fecal occult blood test and sigmoidoscopy. For all six procedures, estimated population-level rates of screening within the past 2 years would have been significantly higher (P < .0001) if self-reported data were used instead of medical record audit data. Self-reported data may overestimate the percentage of the population that has been screened and underestimate the interval since the last cancer detection procedures. Such data should be used cautiously for clinical decision making, research, and surveillance activities at both individual and population levels. Also, comparability of data should be considered when population screening rates are evaluated on the basis of different data sources.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                The Journal of Rural Health
                Wiley-Blackwell
                0890765X
                June 2012
                June 20 2012
                : 28
                : 3
                : 320-326
                Article
                10.1111/j.1748-0361.2011.00394.x
                5590817
                22757957
                © 2012

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