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      Skin Cancer Prevention Behaviors Among Agricultural and Construction Workers in the United States, 2015

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          Nearly 5 million people are treated for skin cancer each year in the United States. Agricultural and construction workers (ACWs) may be at increased risk for skin cancer because of high levels of ultraviolet radiation exposure from the sun. This is the first study that uses nationally representative data to assess sun-protection behaviors among ACWs.


          We analyzed data from the 2015 National Health Interview Survey Cancer Control Supplement to examine the prevalence of sun-protection behaviors among ACWs. We calculated national, weighted, self-reported prevalence estimates. We used χ 2 tests to assess differences between ACWs by industry and occupation.


          Most of the 2,298 agricultural and construction workers studied were male (by industry, 72.4% in agriculture and 89.3% in construction; by occupation, 66.1% in agriculture and 95.6% in construction) and non-Hispanic white. About one-third had at least 1 sunburn in the past year. The prevalence of sunscreen use and shade seeking was low and did not significantly differ among groups, ranging from 15.1% to 21.4% for sunscreen use and 24.5% to 29.1% for shade seeking. The prevalence of wearing protective clothing was significantly higher among agricultural workers than among construction workers by industry (70.9% vs 50.7%) and occupation (70.5% vs 53.0%).


          Our findings could be used to improve occupational health approaches to reducing skin cancer risk among ACWs and to inform education and prevention initiatives addressing skin cancer. Sun-safety initiatives may include modifying work sites to increase shade and adding sun safety to workplace policies and training. Employers can help reduce occupational health inequities and protect workers by creating workplaces that facilitate sun protection.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Prevalence and costs of skin cancer treatment in the U.S., 2002-2006 and 2007-2011.

          Skin cancer, the most common cancer in the U.S., is a major public health problem. The incidence of nonmelanoma and melanoma skin cancer is increasing; however, little is known about the economic burden of treatment.
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            Prevalence of obesity among U.S. workers and associations with occupational factors.

            Along with public health and clinical professionals, employers are taking note of rising obesity rates among their employees, as obesity is strongly related to chronic health problems and concomitant increased healthcare costs. Contributors to the obesity epidemic are complex and numerous, and may include several work characteristics. To explore associations between occupational factors and obesity among U.S. workers. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were utilized to calculate weighted prevalence rates and prevalence ratios (PRs) for obesity in relation to workweek length, work schedule, work arrangement, hostile work environment, job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and industry and occupation of employment. Data were collected in 2010 and analyzed in 2012-2013. Overall, 27.7% of U.S. workers met the BMI criterion for obesity. Among all workers, employment for more than 40 hours per week and exposure to a hostile work environment were significantly associated with an increased prevalence of obesity, although the differences were modest. Employment in health care and social assistance and public administration industries, as well as architecture and engineering, community and social service, protective service, and office and administrative support occupations was also associated with increased obesity prevalence. Work-related factors may contribute to the high prevalence of obesity in the U.S. working population. Public health professionals and employers should consider workplace interventions that target organization-level factors, such as scheduling and prevention of workplace hostility, along with individual-level factors such as diet and exercise. © 2014 Published by American Journal of Preventive Medicine on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine.
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              Sunburns and risk of cutaneous melanoma: does age matter? A comprehensive meta-analysis.

              Sunburns are an important risk factor for melanoma and those occurring in childhood are often cited as posing the greatest risk. We conducted a meta-analysis to quantify the magnitude of association for melanoma and sunburns during childhood, adolescence, adulthood and over a lifetime. After reviewing over 1300 article titles and evaluating 270 articles in detail, we pooled odds ratios from 51 independent study populations for "ever" sunburned and risk of cutaneous melanoma. Among these, 26 studies reported results from dose-response analyses. Dose-response analyses were examined using both fixed-effects models and Bayesian random-effects models. An increased risk of melanoma was seen with increasing number of sunburns for all time-periods (childhood, adolescence, adulthood, and lifetime). In an attempt to understand how risk between life-periods compares, we also report these same linear models on a scale of five sunburns per decade for each life-period. The magnitude of risk for five sunburns per decade is highest for adult and lifetime sunburns. Overall, these results show an increased risk of melanoma with increasing number of sunburns during all life-periods, not just childhood. Prevention efforts should focus on reducing sunburns during all life-periods.

                Author and article information

                Prev Chronic Dis
                Prev Chronic Dis
                Preventing Chronic Disease
                Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
                07 February 2019
                : 16
                [1 ]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, Atlanta, Georgia
                [2 ]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Spokane Mining Research Division, Spokane, Washington
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Kathleen R. Ragan, MSPH, Division of Cancer Prevention and Control; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 4770 Buford Hwy, MS F76, Atlanta, GA 30341. Telephone: 404-718-6626. Email: Kathleen.Ragan@ .
                Original Research
                Peer Reviewed

                Health & Social care


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