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      Eurypterids from the Viséan of East Kirkton, West Lothian, Scotland

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          Abstract

          The hibbertopteroid eurypterid generaHibbertopterus, Dunsopterus, andCyrtoctenusoccur in the East Kirkton Limestone of Bathgate, West Lothian. Most specimens are fragmentary and appear to have been washed into the depositional area with plant debris and tuffaceous sediment. Nearly all of the identifiable material can be attributed toHibbertopterus scouleri(Hibbert), but two isolatedCyrtoctenuscombs, and a femur comparable withDunsopterushave also been recognised.

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          Cyrtoctenus wittebergensis sp. nov. (Chelicerata: Eurypterida), a large sweep-feeder from the Carboniferous of South Africa

          Cyrtoctenus wittebergensissp. nov. is described from a unique holotype from the Witteberg Group of the Cape Supergroup. It is a giant hibbertopteroid eurypterid having combs and specialised movable spines of crytoctenid type (Størmer & Waterston 1968) on the more distal podomeres of the second to fourth prosomal appendages. The function of the combs and their associated movable spines is discussed and it is suggested that together they formed a unique adaptation of eurypterid structures to sweep filter-feeding, the combs forming the filters and the spines the cleaners. The digestive tract is remarkably preserved and shows a spiral valve, posterior to the stomach, which is interpreted as an adaptive feature in this large arthropod to increase the absorptive area of the gut.
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            Trilobite size-frequency distributions, recognition of instars, and phyletic size changes

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              IV. Cyrtoctenus gen. nov., a large late Palaeozoic Arthropod with pectinate Appendages

              It is confirmed that the type species of the genusGlyptoscorpiusPeach 1882 is a subjective synonym ofAdelophthalmusJordan and Meyer 1854. Species which have been referred toGlyptoscorpiusare reviewed and their present taxonomic position defined.Cyrtoctenusgen. nov., type speciesCyrtoctenus peachisp. nov., is designated to accommodate forms bearing five pairs of specialised abdominal appendages of which the first is comb-like. Four species ofCyrtoctenusfrom Devonian and Carboniferous rocks in Scotland, England, Belgium and Czechoslovakia are recognized. The structure and affinities of these forms are discussed with special reference to the comb-like appendages and their ornamentation in relation to these features in other arthropods. In particular the development of filaments and fulcra from different types of scales is discussed. The characters of the new genus are found to be so distinctive as to require the creation of the new order Cyrtoctenida for its accommodation.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                applab
                Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences
                Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh: Earth Sciences
                Cambridge University Press (CUP)
                0263-5933
                1473-7116
                1993
                November 2011
                : 84
                : 3-4
                : 301-308
                Article
                10.1017/S0263593300006118
                c8be8d5e-3ef4-45a4-8f95-c8fd94ca830b
                © 1993
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