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      Establishment of six new Rhabdoblatta species (Blattodea, Blaberidae, Epilamprinae) from China

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          This study examined 504 Rhabdoblatta specimens sampled from China, of which, 86 Rhabdoblatta specimens were used for COI sequencing. A phylogenetic analysis using the ML method and MOTUs estimations by ABGD and GMYC based on COI sequences was performed. Eighteen Rhabdoblatta species were identified when these data were combined with morphological data. Six new species were established among these samples, i.e., Rh. similsinuata sp. n., Rh. densimaculata sp. n., Rh. gyroflexa sp. n., Rh. chaulformis sp. n., Rh. maculata sp. n., and Rh. ecarinata sp. n. For the first time, females including female genitalia of 14 known Rhabdoblatta species are described worldwide. Our study shows that combining molecular species delimitation methods with morphological data helps to delimit species and understand cockroach biodiversity.

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          The external male genitalia and the phylogeny of Blattaria and Mantodea

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            A global molecular phylogeny and timescale of evolution for Cryptocercus woodroaches.

            Cryptocercus is a genus of sub-social wood-feeding cockroaches that represents the sister group to the eusocial termites. We generated mitochondrial (12S+16S rRNA, COII), nuclear (28S rRNA) and Blattbacterium endosymbiont (16S+23S rRNA) sequence data for 8 new Chinese species, and combined these with previously available data to undertake the most extensive analysis of phylogenetic relationships within the genus to date. As expected, phylogenetic relationships among Blattabacterium strains were found to be congruent with those of their hosts. Three major clades were found to exist in Asian populations, one representing taxa from the Hengduan mountains in Southwestern China, a second including taxa from Russia, Korea, Northeastern China, and Yunnan in the Hengduan Mountains, and a third including taxa from the Qinling Mountains and Daba Mountains in Central China. A molecular dating analysis using 7 termite fossils to calibrate the molecular clock indicated that the divergence of American and Asian Cryptocercus occurred 55.09Ma (41.55-72.28Ma 95% CI), and that the radiations of American and Asian taxa occurred 28.48Ma (20.83-37.95Ma 95% CI) and 20.97Ma (15.78-27.21Ma 95% CI) respectively. Reconstruction of ancestral geographic distributions using S-DIVA suggested Cryptocercus was originally distributed across both continents, as opposed to ancestral migration of Cryptocercus from one continent to the other. The last common ancestor of Asian Cryptocercus was inferred to have existed in Central China. An examination of male chromosome numbers in Asian Cryptocercus showed that diploid numbers vary from 2n=15 to 2n=41, and indicates the presence of eight new species. Our study represents the most comprehensive phylogenetic and biogeographic study yet performed for this important group of cockroaches.
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              A Formal Re-Description of the Cockroach Hebardina concinna Anchored on DNA Barcodes Confirms Wing Polymorphism and Identifies Morphological Characters for Field Identification

              Background Hebardina concinna is a domestic pest and potential vector of pathogens throughout East and Southeast Asia, yet identification of this species has been difficult due to a lack of diagnostic morphological characters, and to uncertainty in the relationship between macroptyrous (long-winged) and brachypterous (small-winged) morphotypes. In insects male genital structures are typically species-specific and are frequently used to identify species. However, male genital structures in H. concinna had not previously been described, in part due to difficulty in identifying conspecifics. Methods/Principal Findings We collected 15 putative H. concinna individuals, from Chinese populations, of both wing morphotypes and both sexes and then generated mitochondrial COI (the standard barcode region) and COII sequences from five of these individuals. These confirmed that both morphotypes of both sexes are the same species. We then dissected male genitalia and compared genital structures from macropterous and brachypterous individuals, which we showed to be identical, and present here for the first time a detailed description of H. concinna male genital structures. We also present a complete re-description of the morphological characters of this species, including both wing morphs. Conclusions/Significance This work describes a practical application of DNA barcoding to confirm that putatively polymorphic insects are conspecific and then to identify species-specific characters that can be used in the field to identify individuals and to obviate the delay and cost of returning samples to a laboratory for DNA sequencing.

                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                03 June 2019
                : 851
                : 27-69
                [1 ] Institute of Entomology, College of Plant Protection, Southwest University Beibei China
                [2 ] Southwest University, Southwest University Beibei China
                [3 ] Beibei, Chongqing 400715, China Southwest University Beibei China
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Yanli Che ( shirleyche2000@ )

                Academic editor: E. Cancello

                Rong Yang, Zhenzhen Wang, Yanshuang Zhou, Zongqing Wang, Yanli Che

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                the National Natural Sciences Foundation of China (Nos. 31772506 & 31872271), the Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China (2015FY210300) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (XDJK2017B032)
                Research Article
                Molecular Systematics


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