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      Distribution of Oribatida (Acari) along a depth gradient in forested scree slopes

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      Subterranean Biology

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) of scree slopes constitutes a transition habitat between the soil and the network of voids in the vadose zone of a bedrock massif. In the present study, the vertical distribution of oribatid communities along a depth of 95 cm was studied at five forested MSS sites in the Western Carpathians, Slovakia. The sites differed in type of bedrock, topography and gradient of the microclimate and nutrients content. In all, 909 specimens were captured in subterranean traps exposed for one year. Most Oribatida represented edaphic forms, and their presence in the depth profile of the screes was accidental. Pantelozetes cavatica (Kunst, 1962) was the only species closely linked to deep subterranean environments found in the deeper part of the single limestone site studied. Species richness and the activity of oribatids along the scree profile at the sites clearly reflected the content of organic carbon in the soil substratum. The communities had very low numbers of individuals and low species richness at three sites with soil pH < 7 and organic carbon content in the upper soil layer ≤ 10%. However, they differed markedly in internal temperature dynamics. The other two sites, with a slightly alkaline soil pH and a higher carbon content, showed distinctly higher activity and a relatively uniform pattern of oribatid distribution across the depth profile. The soil pH and organic carbon content in the topsoil layer were substantial factors that determined the Oribatida diversity and vertical distribution in the forested screes.

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          Abundance-based similarity indices and their estimation when there are unseen species in samples.

          A wide variety of similarity indices for comparing two assemblages based on species incidence (i.e., presence/absence) data have been proposed in the literature. These indices are generally based on three simple incidence counts: the number of species shared by two assemblages and the number of species unique to each of them. We provide a new probabilistic derivation for any incidence-based index that is symmetric (i.e., the index is not affected by the identity ordering of the two assemblages) and homogeneous (i.e., the index is unchanged if all counts are multiplied by a constant). The probabilistic approach is further extended to formulate abundance-based indices. Thus any symmetric and homogeneous incidence index can be easily modified to an abundance-type version. Applying the Laplace approximation formulas, we propose estimators that adjust for the effect of unseen shared species on our abundance-based indices. Simulation results show that the adjusted estimators significantly reduce the biases of the corresponding unadjusted ones when a substantial fraction of species is missing from samples. Data on successional vegetation in six tropical forests are used for illustration. Advantages and disadvantages of some commonly applied indices are briefly discussed.
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            Oribatid mite biodiversity in agroecosystems: role for bioindication

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              Shallow Subterranean Habitats

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Subterranean Biology
                SB
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2615
                1768-1448
                July 08 2019
                July 08 2019
                : 31
                : 29-48
                Article
                10.3897/subtbiol.31.36241
                © 2019

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