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Expanding the Paradigms of Plant Pathogen Life History and Evolution of Parasitic Fitness beyond Agricultural Boundaries

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      Acinetobacter baumannii: emergence of a successful pathogen.

      Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as a highly troublesome pathogen for many institutions globally. As a consequence of its immense ability to acquire or upregulate antibiotic drug resistance determinants, it has justifiably been propelled to the forefront of scientific attention. Apart from its predilection for the seriously ill within intensive care units, A. baumannii has more recently caused a range of infectious syndromes in military personnel injured in the Iraq and Afghanistan conflicts. This review details the significant advances that have been made in our understanding of this remarkable organism over the last 10 years, including current taxonomy and species identification, issues with susceptibility testing, mechanisms of antibiotic resistance, global epidemiology, clinical impact of infection, host-pathogen interactions, and infection control and therapeutic considerations.
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        The role of root exudates in rhizosphere interactions with plants and other organisms.

        The rhizosphere encompasses the millimeters of soil surrounding a plant root where complex biological and ecological processes occur. This review describes recent advances in elucidating the role of root exudates in interactions between plant roots and other plants, microbes, and nematodes present in the rhizosphere. Evidence indicating that root exudates may take part in the signaling events that initiate the execution of these interactions is also presented. Various positive and negative plant-plant and plant-microbe interactions are highlighted and described from the molecular to the ecosystem scale. Furthermore, methodologies to address these interactions under laboratory conditions are presented.
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          Comparison of the genomes of two Xanthomonas pathogens with differing host specificities.

          The genus Xanthomonas is a diverse and economically important group of bacterial phytopathogens, belonging to the gamma-subdivision of the Proteobacteria. Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri (Xac) causes citrus canker, which affects most commercial citrus cultivars, resulting in significant losses worldwide. Symptoms include canker lesions, leading to abscission of fruit and leaves and general tree decline. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) causes black rot, which affects crucifers such as Brassica and Arabidopsis. Symptoms include marginal leaf chlorosis and darkening of vascular tissue, accompanied by extensive wilting and necrosis. Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris is grown commercially to produce the exopolysaccharide xanthan gum, which is used as a viscosifying and stabilizing agent in many industries. Here we report and compare the complete genome sequences of Xac and Xcc. Their distinct disease phenotypes and host ranges belie a high degree of similarity at the genomic level. More than 80% of genes are shared, and gene order is conserved along most of their respective chromosomes. We identified several groups of strain-specific genes, and on the basis of these groups we propose mechanisms that may explain the differing host specificities and pathogenic processes.

            Author and article information

            [1 ]INRA, Unité de Pathologie Végétale UR407, Montfavet, France
            [2 ]Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, United States of America
            [3 ]Department of Plant Pathology, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, Minnesota, United States of America
            The Fox Chase Cancer Center, United States of America
            Role: Editor
            PLoS Pathog
            PLoS Pathogens
            Public Library of Science (San Francisco, USA )
            December 2009
            December 2009
            24 December 2009
            : 5
            : 12
            Morris et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
            Pages: 7
            Ecology/Environmental Microbiology
            Microbiology/Cellular Microbiology and Pathogenesis
            Microbiology/Plant-Biotic Interactions

            Infectious disease & Microbiology


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