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      Evidence of enhanced reproductive performance and lack‐of‐fitness costs among soybean aphids, Aphis glycines, with varying levels of pyrethroid resistance

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          Abstract

          BACKGROUND

          Foliar application of insecticides is the main strategy to manage soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in the northcentral United States. Subpopulations of A. glycines have multiple nonsynonymous mutations in the voltage‐gated sodium channel ( vgsc) genes that are associated with pyrethroid resistance. We explored if fitness costs are associated with phenotypes conferred by vgsc mutations using life table analyses. We predicted that there would be significant differences between pyrethroid susceptibility and field‐collected, parthenogenetic isofemale clones with differing, nonsynonymous mutations in vgsc genes.

          RESULTS

          Estimated resistance ratios for the pyrethroid‐resistant clones ranged from 3.1 to 37.58 and 5.6 to 53.91 for lambda‐cyhalothrin and bifenthrin, respectively. Although life table analyses revealed some biological and demographic parameters to be significantly different among the clonal lines, there was no association between levels of pyrethroid resistance and a decline in fitness. By contrast, one of the most resistant clonal lines (SBA‐MN1‐2017) had a significantly higher finite rate of increase, intrinsic rate of increase and greater overall fitness compared to the susceptible control and other pyrethroid‐resistant clonal lines.

          CONCLUSIONS

          Our life history analysis suggests that there are no negative pleotropic effects associated with the pyrethroid resistance in the clonal A. glycines lines used in this study. We discuss the potential impact of these results on efficacies of insecticide resistance management (IRM) and integrated pest management (IPM) plans directed at delaying the spread of pyrethroid‐resistant A. glycines.

          Abstract

          We collected soybean aphids from commercial soybean fields with varying genotypes and phenotypes determined by toxicity bioassays and the presence of nonsynonymous mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance. We used life table analyses to evaluate if fitness costs are associated with pyrethroid‐resistant soybean aphids.

          © 2022 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

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          An Introduction to the Bootstrap

          Statistics is a subject of many uses and surprisingly few effective practitioners. The traditional road to statistical knowledge is blocked, for most, by a formidable wall of mathematics. The approach in An Introduction to the Bootstrap avoids that wall. It arms scientists and engineers, as well as statisticians, with the computational techniques they need to analyze and understand complicated data sets.
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            Dose-Response Analysis Using R

            Dose-response analysis can be carried out using multi-purpose commercial statistical software, but except for a few special cases the analysis easily becomes cumbersome as relevant, non-standard output requires manual programming. The extension package drc for the statistical environment R provides a flexible and versatile infrastructure for dose-response analyses in general. The present version of the package, reflecting extensions and modifications over the last decade, provides a user-friendly interface to specify the model assumptions about the dose-response relationship and comes with a number of extractors for summarizing fitted models and carrying out inference on derived parameters. The aim of the present paper is to provide an overview of state-of-the-art dose-response analysis, both in terms of general concepts that have evolved and matured over the years and by means of concrete examples.
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              Molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance to synthetic and natural xenobiotics.

              Xenobiotic resistance in insects has evolved predominantly by increasing the metabolic capability of detoxificative systems and/or reducing xenobiotic target site sensitivity. In contrast to the limited range of nucleotide changes that lead to target site insensitivity, many molecular mechanisms lead to enhancements in xenobiotic metabolism. The genomic changes that lead to amplification, overexpression, and coding sequence variation in the three major groups of genes encoding metabolic enzymes, i.e., cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s), esterases, and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs), are the focus of this review. A substantial number of the adaptive genomic changes associated with insecticide resistance that have been characterized to date are transposon mediated. Several lines of evidence suggest that P450 genes involved in insecticide resistance, and perhaps insecticide detoxification genes in general, may share an evolutionary association with genes involved in allelochemical metabolism. Differences in the selective regime imposed by allelochemicals and insecticides may account for the relative importance of regulatory or structural mutations in conferring resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                oneal@iastate.edu
                Journal
                Pest Manag Sci
                Pest Manag Sci
                10.1002/(ISSN)1526-4998
                PS
                Pest Management Science
                John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (Chichester, UK )
                1526-498X
                1526-4998
                03 March 2022
                May 2022
                : 78
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1002/ps.v78.5 )
                : 2000-2010
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Entomology Iowa State University Ames IA USA
                [ 2 ] United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Corn Insects & Crop Genetics Research Ames IA USA
                [ 3 ] Corteva Agriscience, Agriculture Division of DowDuPont Dallas Center IA USA
                Author notes
                [*] [* ] Correspondence to: ME O’Neal, Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Ames, IA, USA. E‐mail: oneal@ 123456iastate.edu

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5556-6832
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8908-1529
                Article
                PS6820
                10.1002/ps.6820
                9310592
                35102702
                c8dd73fa-18ec-4cf0-89a2-27eee09d62e5
                © 2022 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 24 January 2022
                : 26 November 2021
                : 27 January 2022
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 4, Pages: 11, Words: 10383
                Funding
                Funded by: U.S. Department of Agriculture , doi 10.13039/100000199;
                Funded by: Agricultural Research Service , doi 10.13039/100007917;
                Award ID: 00D
                Funded by: Iowa Soybean Association , doi 10.13039/100011461;
                Categories
                Research Article
                Research Articles
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                May 2022
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.1.7 mode:remove_FC converted:25.07.2022

                Pests, Diseases & Weeds
                lambda‐cyhalothrin,bifenthrin, vgsc mutations,insecticide,irm
                Pests, Diseases & Weeds
                lambda‐cyhalothrin, bifenthrin, vgsc mutations, insecticide, irm

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