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      Assessment of the behaviour and survival of nematodes under low oxygen concentrations

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          Abstract

          Oxygen is required for the completion of almost all known metazoan lifecycles, but many metazoans harbour abilities to withstand varying degrees and periods of hypoxia. Caenorhabditis elegans, one of the most popular model organism is extensively used as a model for the study of hypoxia and anoxia biology and it has been found that this nematode is capable of tolerance to varying degrees of hypoxia. Considering the extremely high diversity of nematodes, the effects of low oxygen concentration and mechanisms of adaptation to oxygen depletion differ among species. In this study, we used a simple assay to examine anoxia tolerance in four nematode species, including three free-living and one plant parasitic nematode. We found that the plant parasitic nematode Bursaphelenchus xylophilus can survive more than 14 days under anoxic conditions. Comparisons of behaviour during anoxia induction and the repertoire of oxygen sensation genes among the tested species suggested the existence of different oxygen sensation systems between B. xylophilus and C. elegans, which quickly introduce suspended animation in response to oxygen depletion to survive long-term anoxia.

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          WormBase ParaSite − a comprehensive resource for helminth genomics

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            Bursaphelenchus xylophilus: opportunities in comparative genomics and molecular host-parasite interactions.

            Most Bursaphelenchus species are fungal feeding nematodes that colonize dead or dying trees. However, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the pine wood nematode, is also a pathogen of trees and is the causal agent of pine wilt disease. B. xylophilus is native to North America and here it causes little damage to trees. Where it is introduced to new regions it causes huge damage. The most severely affected areas are found in the Far East but more recently B. xylophilus has been introduced into Portugal and the potential for damage here is also high. As incidence and severity of pine wilt disease are linked to temperature we suggest that climate change is likely to exacerbate the problems caused by B. xylophilus and, in addition, will extend (northwards in Europe) the range in which pine wilt disease can occur. Here we review what is currently known about the interactions of B. xylophilus with its hosts, including recent developments in our understanding of the molecular biology of pathogenicity in the nematode. We also examine the potential developments that could be made by more widespread use of genomics tools to understand interactions between B. xylophilus, bacterial pathogens that have been implicated in disease and host trees.
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              Downregulation of cellular metabolism during environmental stress: mechanisms and implications.

              Survival time of organisms during exposure to environmental stresses that limit energy availability is, in general, directly related to the degree of metabolic depression achieved. The energetic cost savings realized by the organism is a consequence primarily of the ability to depress ion pumping activities of cells, macromolecular synthesis, and macromolecular turnover. Evidence supporting the concept of channel arrest-the reduction in ion leakage across cell membranes during hypometabolic states-has highlighted the energetic benefits of limiting ATP turnover related to cellular ion homeostasis. Depression of protein synthesis results in substantial bioenergetic savings. However, when protein synthesis is arrested, the preservation of macromolecules becomes increasingly important as the duration of quiescence is extended because the cellular capacity for replenishing these components is reduced. It is likely that the rate of macromolecular degradation is a key feature that sets the upper time limit for survival during chronic environmental stress.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: InvestigationRole: Writing – original draft
                Role: Investigation
                Role: Resources
                Role: ConceptualizationRole: Funding acquisitionRole: Project administrationRole: SupervisionRole: Writing – original draftRole: Writing – review & editing
                Role: Editor
                Journal
                PLoS One
                PLoS ONE
                plos
                plosone
                PLoS ONE
                Public Library of Science (San Francisco, CA USA )
                1932-6203
                14 May 2018
                2018
                : 13
                : 5
                : e0197122
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Division of Parasitology, Department of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, Miyazaki, Japan
                [2 ] Faculty of Forestry, Duzce University, Konuralp Campus, Duzce, Turkey
                University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, UNITED STATES
                Author notes

                Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist.

                Author information
                http://orcid.org/0000-0003-2759-9167
                Article
                PONE-D-17-26273
                10.1371/journal.pone.0197122
                5951539
                29758056
                c8e339b1-f667-4517-89f7-b978d76877b6
                © 2018 Kitazume et al

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                History
                : 12 July 2017
                : 26 April 2018
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 0, Pages: 12
                Funding
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001691, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science;
                Award ID: 16K15267
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: funder-id http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001691, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science;
                Award ID: 16H04722
                Award Recipient :
                This work was supported by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science KAKENHI Grant Nos. 16H04722 and 16K15267 (TK). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. There was no additional external funding received for this study.
                Categories
                Research Article
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Elements
                Oxygen
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Model Organisms
                Caenorhabditis Elegans
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Model Organisms
                Caenorhabditis Elegans
                Research and Analysis Methods
                Experimental Organism Systems
                Animal Models
                Caenorhabditis Elegans
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Nematoda
                Caenorhabditis
                Caenorhabditis Elegans
                Medicine and Health Sciences
                Pulmonology
                Medical Hypoxia
                Anoxia
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Eukaryota
                Animals
                Invertebrates
                Nematoda
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Organisms
                Bacteria
                Anaerobic Bacteria
                Earth Sciences
                Atmospheric Science
                Atmospheric Chemistry
                Greenhouse Gases
                Carbon Dioxide
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Environmental Chemistry
                Atmospheric Chemistry
                Greenhouse Gases
                Carbon Dioxide
                Ecology and Environmental Sciences
                Environmental Chemistry
                Atmospheric Chemistry
                Greenhouse Gases
                Carbon Dioxide
                Physical Sciences
                Chemistry
                Chemical Compounds
                Carbon Dioxide
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Neuroscience
                Sensory Perception
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Psychology
                Sensory Perception
                Social Sciences
                Psychology
                Sensory Perception
                Biology and Life Sciences
                Developmental Biology
                Life Cycles
                Larvae
                Custom metadata
                All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.

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