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      Real-Time PCR Quantification of AT1 and AT2 Angiotensin Receptor mRNA Expression in the Developing Rat Kidney

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          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Angiotensin II (Ang II) is an important growth factor in the fetal kidney. Molecular cloning and pharmacological studies have defined two major classes of Ang II receptors designated AT1 and AT2. Two AT1 isoforms, AT1A and AT1B, exist in rodents. AT1 promotes growth and proliferation and mediates many of the known physiological actions of Ang II. AT2 appears to antagonize AT1. Our goal was to measure their relative contributions to Ang II signaling in the developing kidney. Methods: We used real-time RT-PCR to quantify AT1A, AT1B, AT2 and the housekeeping gene EF1α mRNA in kidneys from embryonic (E) day 14–20 and postnatal (P) day 1–14 rats. Results: AT2 mRNA declined from 1.4 × 10<sup>4</sup> copies/10<sup>6</sup> copies EF1α on E14 to 4.2 × 10<sup>3</sup> copies/10<sup>6</sup> copies EF1α on P14. In contrast, total AT1 mRNA increased gradually from 2.0 × 10<sup>3</sup> copies/10<sup>6</sup> copies EF1α on E14 to 2.0 × 10<sup>4</sup> copies/10<sup>6</sup> copies EF1α on P14, with AT1A accounting for about 90% of total AT1 mRNA throughout nephrogenesis. Moreover, the ratio of AT2/(AT1A + AT1B) decreased in a log-linear fashion during maturation, from 6.7 on E14 to 0.2 on P14. Conclusion: The ratio of AT2 to AT1 gene expression modulates Ang II action in the developing kidney.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction.

          A new method of total RNA isolation by a single extraction with an acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform mixture is described. The method provides a pure preparation of undegraded RNA in high yield and can be completed within 4 h. It is particularly useful for processing large numbers of samples and for isolation of RNA from minute quantities of cells or tissue samples.
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            Biological functions of angiotensin and its receptors.

            Angiotensin receptors are present in a number of organs and systems including heart, kidney, gonad, and placenta; pituitary and adrenal glands; the peripheral vessels, and the central nervous system. This octapeptide exerts diverse effects that include induction of cell hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia and a stimulation of hormone synthesis and ion transport in the heart, kidney, and adrenal, primarily through type 1 (AT1) receptors. In the kidney, several heterogeneous cell populations--endothelial, epithelial, and vascular--carry AT1 receptors. Some studies suggest that AT2 receptors are also functional, but the cell type carrying this receptor and the nature of its specific function have not been fully elucidated. Although studies indicate that AT1 receptors are affected in response to physiological and pathophysiological manipulations, the functional significance of these modulations remains largely uncertain. Nevertheless, recent human genetic studies indicate that polymorphisms in AT1 receptors, as well as in other angiotensin-related genes, have significant impact on organ remodeling processes of the heart and the kidney.
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              Maternal glucocorticoid treatment programs alterations in the renin-angiotensin system of the ovine fetal kidney.

              Ovine fetuses exposed to high concentrations of synthetic (dexamethasone, D) or naturally occurring glucocorticoids (cortisol, F) in utero during early gestation develop high blood pressure in adulthood. To investigate potential mechanisms involved, we examined the role of the renal renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Ewes were infused with isotonic saline (S, n = 11), D (n = 12, 0.48 mg/h), or F (n = 5, 5 mg/h) for 48 h between d 26 and 28 of gestation (term = 150 d). Ewes carrying twins (S, n = 5; D, n = 6; F, n = 5) were killed at 130 d of gestation. The mRNA levels for angiotensinogen, the AT(1) receptor and AT(2) receptor, were increased in the fetal kidneys after D treatment. Prenatal infusions of F produced similar effects on the AT(1) receptor. Single fetuses (S, n = 6; D, n = 6) were cannulated and infused with angiotensin II for 3 d beginning at 127 d of gestation. Basal blood pressure was similar in both groups and increased similarly with angiotensin II infusion. However, increases in urine flow and glomerular filtration rate were significantly reduced and kidney weights increased in the D-treated group. These results indicate that treatment with D very early in gestation causes significant alterations in the RAS in the fetal kidney 100 d later with functional consequences. Changes in the RAS in the developing kidney may be an important mechanism in the development of adult disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2003
                August 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 94
                : 4
                : e154-e159
                Affiliations
                Departments of aPediatrics, bPathology, cNeurobiology and Anatomy and dChildren’s Health Research Center, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
                Article
                72499 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;94:e154–e159
                10.1159/000072499
                12972714
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, References: 47, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/72499
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