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      Overexpression of SOX9 alleviates the progression of human osteoarthritis in vitro and in vivo

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          Recent findings have identified that SOX9 served as a key role during the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). This study aimed to investigate the mechanisms by which SOX9 regulated the formation of OA in vitro and in vivo.

          Materials and methods

          The relative expressions of SOX9 in patients with OA and normal fracture of thighbone were analyzed by real-time-PCR. In vitro, IL-1β induced inflammatory response in human chondrocytes was used to evaluate the function of SOX9. The recombinant SOX9 lentivirus vector (Lenti-SOX9) was used to upregulate the expression of SOX9 in cells. ELISA was used to measure the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). The protein expressions of SOX9, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP13), Collagen II, Aggrecan and Smad3 were analyzed by Western blot. Cell proliferation and cell apoptosis were detected by CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. In vivo, the effect of SOX9 on surgically induced OA mice was evaluated.


          The gene level of SOX9 was remarkably downregulated in patients with OA compared with normal people, while the concentration of TNF-α was upregulated. In addition, IL-1β reduced the expressions of SOX9, Collagen II and Aggrecan and increased the level of MMP13 in chondrocytes. Moreover, Lenti-SOX9 notably inhibited IL-1β-induced growth inhibition and apoptosis in chondrocytes via increasing the expression of Smad3. Finally, Lenti-SOX9 markedly alleviated the symptoms of OA mice in vivo.


          Upregulation of SOX9 inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammatory response via increasing the level Smad3 in human chondrocytes and exhibited therapeutic effect on surgically induced OA mice in vivo. Therefore, SOX9 may serve as a potential target in the treatment of OA in the future.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Osteoarthritis cartilage histopathology: grading and staging.

          Current osteoarthritis (OA) histopathology assessment methods have difficulties in their utility for early disease, as well as their reproducibility and validity. Our objective was to devise a more useful method to assess OA histopathology that would have wide application for clinical and experimental OA assessment and would become recognized as the standard method. An OARSI Working Group deliberated on principles, standards and features for an OA cartilage pathology assessment system. Using current knowledge of the pathophysiology of OA morphologic features, a proposed system was presented at OARSI 2000. Subsequently, this was widely circulated for comments amongst experts in OA pathology. An OA cartilage pathology assessment system based on six grades, which reflect depth of the lesion and four stages reflecting extent of OA over the joint surface was developed. The OARSI cartilage OA histopathology grading system appears consistent and simple to apply. Further studies are required to confirm the system's utility.
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            Is Open Access

            The Role of Inflammatory and Anti-Inflammatory Cytokines in the Pathogenesis of Osteoarthritis

            Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic disease of human joints. The basis of pathologic changes involves all the tissues forming the joint; already, at an early stage, it has the nature of inflammation with varying degrees of severity. An analysis of the complex relationships indicates that the processes taking place inside the joint are not merely a set that (seemingly) only includes catabolic effects. Apart from them, anti-inflammatory anabolic processes also occur continually. These phenomena are driven by various mediators, of which the key role is attributed to the interactions within the cytokine network. The most important group controlling the disease seems to be inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1 β , TNF α , IL-6, IL-15, IL-17, and IL-18. The second group with antagonistic effect is formed by cytokines known as anti-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13. The role of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the pathogenesis of OA with respect to inter- and intracellular signaling pathways is still under investigation. This paper summarizes the current state of knowledge. The cytokine network in OA is put in the context of cells involved in this degenerative joint disease. The possibilities for further implementation of new therapeutic strategies in OA are also pointed.
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              Sox9 directs hypertrophic maturation and blocks osteoblast differentiation of growth plate chondrocytes.

              The transcription factor Sox9 is necessary for early chondrogenesis, but its subsequent roles in the cartilage growth plate, a highly specialized structure that drives skeletal growth and endochondral ossification, remain unclear. Using a doxycycline-inducible Cre transgene and Sox9 conditional null alleles in the mouse, we show that Sox9 is required to maintain chondrocyte columnar proliferation and generate cell hypertrophy, two key features of functional growth plates. Sox9 keeps Runx2 expression and β-catenin signaling in check and thereby inhibits not only progression from proliferation to prehypertrophy, but also subsequent acquisition of an osteoblastic phenotype. Sox9 protein outlives Sox9 RNA in upper hypertrophic chondrocytes, where it contributes with Mef2c to directly activate the major marker of these cells, Col10a1. These findings thus reveal that Sox9 remains a central determinant of the lineage fate and multistep differentiation program of growth plate chondrocytes and thereby illuminate our understanding of key molecular mechanisms underlying skeletogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                13 August 2019
                : 13
                : 2833-2842
                [1 ]Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital East Campus Shanghai University of Medicine and Health , Shanghai 201306, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Orthopedics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University Affiliated Sixth People’s Hospital , Shanghai 200233, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yi Zhu; Yanfeng LiDepartment of Orthopedics, Shanghai Sixth People’s Hospital East Campus Shanghai University of Medicine and Health , No. 222, Around Lake Western Third Ring Road, Pudong New District, Shanghai201306, People’s Republic of ChinaEmail zhuyizhuyi@yandex.com; yanfeng_li@126.com
                © 2019 Ouyang et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 29, Pages: 10
                Original Research

                Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine

                il-1β, sox9, inflammation, collagen, osteoarthritis


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