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      Safety of pyrethroid-treated mosquito nets.

      Medical and Veterinary Entomology

      Animals, Anopheles, Bedding and Linens, Consumer Product Safety, Health Planning Guidelines, Humans, adverse effects, Insecticides, Malaria, prevention & control, Mosquito Control, Pyrethrins

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          Abstract

          The use of insecticide treated nets (ITNs) for personal protection against malaria vector Anopheles mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) has become popular during the past decade. With the precautions outlined in this paper, field use of pyrethroids--at concentrations recommended for treatment of mosquito nets--poses little or no hazard to people treating the nets or to users of the treated nets. With frequent exposure to low concentrations of pyrethroids, the risk of toxicity of any kind is remote. Pyrethroids entering the systemic circulation are rapidly metabolized to much less toxic metabolites. Toxicologically, pyrethroids have a useful characteristic--the production of skin paraesthesia--which gives an early indication of exposure. This reversible symptom of exposure is due to transient stimulation of peripheral sensory nerves and not a toxic effect. In the retail market, for home use, the provision of proper packaging and labelling, with clear instructions on safe and effective use of the product are most important. Because many domestic users of pyrethroid 'home treatment kits' for ITNs may not be fully literate, it is essential that 'instructions for use' should be portrayed via pictograms with supporting text in appropriate local language(s).

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          Trial of pyrethroid impregnated bednets in an area of Tanzania holoendemic for malaria. Part 1. Operational methods and acceptability.

          In five Tanzanian villages, nets impregnated with permethrin or lambdacyhalothrin were given out. The people received them enthusiastically and brought their nets for re-impregnation at six monthly intervals. Bioassays showed that the insecticidal power of permethrin impregnated nets remained adequate for six months unless the nets were washed. Nets with 30 mg lambdacyhalothrin/m2 retained high insecticidal power despite washing, but this dose caused temporary cold-like symptoms in those sleeping under freshly treated dry nets. Methods by which durable bednets might be made affordable by Tanzanian villagers are discussed.
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            Bednet impregnation for Chagas disease control: a new perspective.

            To determine the efficacy and acceptability of deltamethrin-impregnated bednets in controlling Chagas disease in South America. In three endemic departments of Colombia, a qualitative study on people's knowledge about Chagas disease, vectors, preventive measures and their willingness for collaboration in control operations was undertaken. Additionally, in an entomological study with 100 laboratory-bred Chagas vectors (Rhodnius prolixus), vectors were released for 5 nights (20 each night) in an experimental room, with the human bait protected for one night by an unimpregnated and for four nights by a deltamethrin-impregnated bednet (13 mg/m2). Vectors were stained with fluorescent powder for observation, collected after 10 h exposure in the experimental room and observed for a further 72 h. The study population did not know anything about Chagas disease, but believed the vector to transmit cutaneous leishmaniasis. Therefore willingness to take part in control operations was high. The experimental hut study showed a vector mortality rate of 95% in a room with impregnated nets and of 10% in a room with unimpregnated nets. This study opens a new perspective for Chagas disease control in integrated vector borne disease prevention programmes.
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              Permethrin-impregnated bednet effects on resting and feeding behaviour of lymphatic filariasis vector mosquitoes in Kenya

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                Journal
                10759305

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