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      Comparison of Adverse Event Profiles of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alfa Inhibitors: Analysis of a Spontaneous Reporting Database

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          Concerns over safety profiles of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alfa inhibitors have been raised. The purpose of this study was to clarify the adverse events associated with TNF-alfa inhibitors using a spontaneous reporting system database.

          Materials and Methods

          A retrospective pharmacovigilance disproportionality analysis was conducted using the Japanese Adverse Drug Event Report (JADER) database. Adverse event reports submitted to the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency between 2004 and 2017 were analyzed, and the reporting odds ratio (ROR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each adverse event were calculated.


          Among the 34,031 reports of adverse events associated with TNF-alfa inhibitors, 65.8% were women, who were frequently in their 60s (28.2%). Signals were detected for pneumonia (ROR, 5.36; 95% CI, 5.14–5.6), interstitial lung disease (ROR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.95–2.15), pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (ROR, 11.8; 95% CI, 11.1–12.5), and herpes zoster (ROR, 6.4; 95% CI, 5.92–6.91) for TNF-alfa inhibitors as a class. There was variability in their signal strength across individual TNF-alfa inhibitors.


          The strength of the associations of TNF-alfa inhibitors with adverse events is variable, and further studies are required to evaluate the identified signals.

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          Most cited references 22

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          Golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis after treatment with tumour necrosis factor alpha inhibitors (GO-AFTER study): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III trial.

          Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) inhibitors are frequently used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, but whether use of a different TNFalpha inhibitor can improve patient response is unknown. We assess the efficacy and safety of the TNFalpha inhibitor golimumab in patients with active rheumatoid arthritis who had previously received one or more TNFalpha inhibitors. 461 patients with active rheumatoid arthritis from 82 sites in 10 countries were randomly allocated by interactive voice response system, stratified by study site and methotrexate use, to receive subcutaneous injections of placebo (n=155), 50 mg golimumab (n=153), or 100 mg golimumab (n=153) every 4 weeks between Feb 21, 2006, and Sept 26, 2007. Allocation was double-blind. Eligible patients had been treated with at least one dose of a TNFalpha inhibitor previously. Patients continued stable doses of methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, oral corticosteroids, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The primary endpoint was achievement at week 14 of 20% or higher improvement in American College of Rheumatology criteria for assessment of rheumatoid arthritis (ACR20). At week 16, patients who had less than 20% improvement in tender and swollen joint counts were given rescue therapy and changed treatment from placebo to 50 mg golimumab, or from 50 mg to 100 mg golimumab. Drug efficacy was assessed by intention to treat and safety was assessed according to the study drug given. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00299546. Patients had discontinued previous TNFalpha inhibitors because of lack of effectiveness (269 [58%] patients) or reasons unrelated to effectiveness (246 [53%] patients), such as intolerance and accessibility issues. Patients had active disease, which was indicated by a median of 14.0 (IQR 9.0-22.0) swollen and 26.0 (16.0-41.0) tender joints for the whole group. 28 (18%) patients on placebo, 54 (35%) patients on 50 mg golimumab (odds ratio 2.5 [95% CI 1.5-4.2], p=0.0006), and 58 (38%) patients on 100 mg golimumab (2.8 [1.6-4.7], p=0.0001) achieved ACR20 at week 14. Two patients were never treated, and 57 patients did not complete the study because of adverse events, unsatisfactory treatment effect, loss to follow-up, death, or other reasons. 155 patients on placebo, 153 on 50 mg golimumab, and 153 on 100 mg golimumab were assessed for drug efficacy. For weeks 1-16, serious adverse events were recorded in 11 (7%) patients on placebo, 8 (5%) on 50 mg golimumab, and 4 (3%) on 100 mg golimumab. For weeks 1-24, after some patients were given rescue therapy, serious adverse events were recorded in 15 (10%) patients on placebo, 14 (5%) on 50 mg golimumab, and 8 (4%) on 100 mg golimumab. Golimumab reduced the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis in patients with active disease who had previously received one or more TNFalpha inhibitors. Centocor Research and Development and Schering-Plough Research Institute.
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            Mechanism of action of certolizumab pegol (CDP870): in vitro comparison with other anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha agents.

            Inhibitors of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) have demonstrated significant efficacy in chronic inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease (CD). To further elucidate the mechanisms of action of these agents, we compared the anti-TNFalpha agents certolizumab pegol, infliximab, adalimumab, and etanercept in several in vitro systems. The ability of each anti-TNFalpha agent to neutralize soluble and membrane-bound TNFalpha; mediate cytotoxicity, affect apoptosis of activated human peripheral blood lymphocytes and monocytes; induce degranulation of human peripheral blood granulocytes, and modulate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-1beta production by human monocytes was measured in vitro. All 4 agents neutralized soluble TNFalpha and bound to and neutralized membrane TNFalpha. Infliximab and adalimumab were comparable in their ability to mediate complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, and to increase the proportion of cells undergoing apoptosis and the level of granulocyte degranulation. Etanercept generally mediated these effects to a lesser degree, while certolizumab pegol gave similar results to the control reagents. LPS-induced IL-1beta production was inhibited by certolizumab pegol, infliximab, and adalimumab, but only partially inhibited by etanercept. In contrast to the other anti-TNFalpha agents tested, certolizumab pegol did not mediate increased levels of apoptosis in any of the in vitro assays used, suggesting that these mechanisms are not essential for the efficacy of anti-TNFalpha agents in CD. As certolizumab pegol, infliximab, and adalimumab, but not etanercept, almost completely inhibited LPS-induced IL-1beta release from monocytes, inhibition of cytokine production may be important for efficacy of anti-TNFalpha agents in CD.
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              Demyelination occurring during anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha therapy for inflammatory arthritides.

              To review the occurrence of neurologic events suggestive of demyelination during anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (anti-TNFalpha) therapy for inflammatory arthritides. The Adverse Events Reporting System of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) was queried following a report of a patient with refractory rheumatoid arthritis who developed confusion and difficulty with walking after receiving etanercept for 4 months. Nineteen patients with similar neurologic events were identified from the FDA database, 17 following etanercept administration and 2 following infliximab administration for inflammatory arthritis. All neurologic events were temporally related to anti-TNFalpha therapy, with partial or complete resolution on discontinuation. One patient exhibited a positive rechallenge phenomenon. Further surveillance and studies are required to better define risk factors for and frequency of adverse events and their relationship to anti-TNFalpha therapies. Until more long-term safety data are available, consideration should be given to avoiding anti-TNFalpha therapy in patients with preexisting multiple sclerosis and to discontinuing anti-TNFalpha therapy immediately when new neurologic signs and symptoms occur, pending an appropriate evaluation.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                13 August 2020
                : 16
                : 741-747
                [1 ]Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences , Takatsuki, Osaka, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Keiko Hosohata Education and Research Center for Clinical Pharmacy, Osaka University of Pharmaceutical Sciences , 4-20-1 Nasahara, Takatsuki, Osaka569-1094, JapanTel +81-72-690-1271Fax +81-72-690-1023 Email hosohata@gly.oups.ac.jp
                © 2020 Wakabayashi et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Tables: 8, References: 32, Pages: 7
                Funded by: Science Research Promotion Fund
                K. Hosohata received research support from the Science Research Promotion Fund.
                Original Research


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