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      Insights into the Role of the von Hippel-Lindau Gene Product

      , ,

      Cardiorenal Medicine

      S. Karger AG

      Hypoxia, Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, von Hippel-Lindau, Oxygen

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          Abstract

          Many adaptive responses to hypoxia involve changes in gene transcription mediated by the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 complex. Central to this is oxygen-dependent proteolysis of the α subunit, which has recently been shown to require the von Hippel-Lindau tumour-suppressor protein. This observation provides one mechanism by which inherited defects in the von Hippel-Lindau gene could cause features of the clinical syndrome, and offers insight into the events leading to sporadic clear cell renal cancer. Furthermore, it clearly implicates the von Hippel-Lindau tumour-suppressor protein in the biochemistry of oxygen sensing.

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          Most cited references 8

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          Ubiquitination of hypoxia-inducible factor requires direct binding to the beta-domain of the von Hippel-Lindau protein.

          von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a hereditary cancer syndrome that is characterized by the development of multiple vascular tumors and is caused by inactivation of the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL). Here we show that pVHL, through its beta-domain, binds directly to hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), thereby targeting HIF for ubiquitination in an alpha-domain-dependent manner. This is the first function to be ascribed to the pVHL beta-domain. Furthermore, we provide the first direct evidence that pVHL has a function analogous to that of an F-box protein, namely, to recruit substrates to a ubiquitination machine. These results strengthen the link between overaccumulation of HIF and development of VHL disease.
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            Hypoxia inducible factor-alpha binding and ubiquitylation by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein.

            The von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein (pVHL) has emerged as a key factor in cellular responses to oxygen availability, being required for the oxygen-dependent proteolysis of alpha subunits of hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF). Mutations in VHL cause a hereditary cancer syndrome associated with dysregulated angiogenesis, and up-regulation of hypoxia inducible genes. Here we investigate the mechanisms underlying these processes and show that extracts from VHL-deficient renal carcinoma cells have a defect in HIF-alpha ubiquitylation activity which is complemented by exogenous pVHL. This defect was specific for HIF-alpha among a range of substrates tested. Furthermore, HIF-alpha subunits were the only pVHL-associated proteasomal substrates identified by comparison of metabolically labeled anti-pVHL immunoprecipitates from proteosomally inhibited cells and normal cells. Analysis of pVHL/HIF-alpha interactions defined short sequences of conserved residues within the internal transactivation domains of HIF-alpha molecules sufficient for recognition by pVHL. In contrast, while full-length pVHL and the p19 variant interact with HIF-alpha, the association was abrogated by further N-terminal and C-terminal truncations. The interaction was also disrupted by tumor-associated mutations in the beta-domain of pVHL and loss of interaction was associated with defective HIF-alpha ubiquitylation and regulation, defining a mechanism by which these mutations generate a constitutively hypoxic pattern of gene expression promoting angiogenesis. The findings indicate that pVHL regulates HIF-alpha proteolysis by acting as the recognition component of a ubiquitin ligase complex, and support a model in which its beta domain interacts with short recognition sequences in HIF-alpha subunits.
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              Structure of the VHL-ElonginC-ElonginB complex: implications for VHL tumor suppressor function.

              Mutation of the VHL tumor suppressor is associated with the inherited von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) cancer syndrome and the majority of kidney cancers. VHL binds the ElonginC-ElonginB complex and regulates levels of hypoxia-inducible proteins. The structure of the ternary complex at 2.7 angstrom resolution shows two interfaces, one between VHL and ElonginC and another between ElonginC and ElonginB. Tumorigenic mutations frequently occur in a 35-residue domain of VHL responsible for ElonginC binding. A mutational patch on a separate domain of VHL indicates a second macromolecular binding site. The structure extends the similarities to the SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex that targets proteins for degradation, supporting the hypothesis that VHL may function in an analogous pathway.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                EXN
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2001
                2001
                27 June 2001
                : 9
                : 4
                : 235-240
                Affiliations
                Nephrology and Oxygen-Sensing Laboratory, Henry Wellcome Building of Genomic Medicine, Oxford, UK
                Article
                52617 Exp Nephrol 2001;9:235–240
                10.1159/000052617
                11423722
                © 2001 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 25, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/52617
                Categories
                Minireview

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Oxygen, Hypoxia, Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, von Hippel-Lindau

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