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      Atherosclerosis risk assessment in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a case-control study

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          Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is considered as a risk factor for atherosclerosis and a leading cause of mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). The study assessed the association of COPD with atherosclerotic risk factors and compared the predictor role of various cardiovascular (CV) risk score calculators in Indian subjects with COPD.

          Patients and methods

          Forty subjects with stable COPD and forty age, gender and body mass index (BMI)-matched healthy controls were included in the case-control study conducted in a tertiary care hospital. Atherogenic indices were calculated by using the values of lipid parameters. CV risk calculators were utilized to assess the 10-year CV risk for the COPD group.


          The study subjects had a mean age of 60.83±12.40 years in COPD group and 57.73±9.49 years in control group ( p=0.213). Gender distribution was similar in both the groups. The mean High sensitivity C-reactive protein ( hs-CRP) levels were 3.70±2.37 mg/L in COPD group and 2.39±2.23 mg/L in control group. The hs-CRP levels were significantly higher in COPD than in control subjects ( p=0.012). Using bivariate correlations, we found significant positive correlations between hs-CRP and atherogenesis indices-atherogenic index of plasma, cardiogenic risk ratio, atherogenic coefficient in COPD patients [(r=0.4265, p<0.006); (r=0.7034, p<0.001) and (r=0.7034, p<0.001), respectively]. Framingham risk score-cardiovascular disease (FRS-CVD) has identified maximum number of COPD subjects (45%) to be in high CVD risk category.


          The study concluded that hs-CRP levels in COPD subjects were significantly higher than in control subjects. FRS-CVD was most useful for identifying high CV risk subjects in COPD subjects.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

          Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD. A systematic review was conducted of studies which reported on the relationship between COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) or forced vital capacity (FVC), and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukins 6 and 8. Where possible the results were pooled together to produce a summary estimate using a random or fixed effects model. Fourteen original studies were identified. Overall, the standardised mean difference in the CRP level between COPD and control subjects was 0.53 units (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.72). The standardised mean difference in the fibrinogen level was 0.47 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.65). Circulating leucocytes were also higher in COPD than in control subjects (standardised mean difference 0.44 units (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67)), as were serum TNF-alpha levels (standardised mean difference 0.59 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.89)). Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.
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            Simple scoring scheme for calculating the risk of acute coronary events based on the 10-year follow-up of the prospective cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study.

            The absolute risk of an acute coronary event depends on the totality of risk factors exhibited by an individual, the so-called global risk profile. Although several scoring schemes have been suggested to calculate this profile, many omit information on important variables such as family history of coronary heart disease or LDL cholesterol. Based on 325 acute coronary events occurring within 10 years of follow-up among 5389 men 35 to 65 years of age at recruitment into the Prospective Cardiovascular Münster (PROCAM) study, we developed a Cox proportional hazards model using the following 8 independent risk variables, ranked in order of importance: age, LDL cholesterol, smoking, HDL cholesterol, systolic blood pressure, family history of premature myocardial infarction, diabetes mellitus, and triglycerides. We then derived a simple point scoring system based on the beta-coefficients of this model. The accuracy of this point scoring scheme was comparable to coronary event prediction when the continuous variables themselves were used. The scoring system accurately predicted observed coronary events with an area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve of 82.4% compared with 82.9% for the Cox model with continuous variables. Our scoring system is a simple and accurate way of predicting global risk of myocardial infarction in clinical practice and will therefore allow more accurate targeting of preventive therapy.
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              Lipoprotein ratios: Physiological significance and clinical usefulness in cardiovascular prevention

              Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentration has been the prime index of cardiovascular disease risk and the main target for therapy. However, several lipoprotein ratios or “atherogenic indices” have been defined in an attempt to optimize the predictive capacity of the lipid profile. In this review, we summarize their pathophysiological aspects, and highlight the rationale for using these lipoprotein ratios as cardiovascular risk factors in clinical practice, specifying their cut-off risk levels and a target for lipid-lowering therapy. Total/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol and LDL/HDL cholesterol ratios are risk indicators with greater predictive value than isolated parameters used independently, particularly LDL. Future recommendations regarding the diagnosis and treatment of dyslipidemia, including instruments for calculating cardiovascular risk or action guidelines, should include the lipoprotein ratios with greater predictive power which, in view of the evidence-based results, are none other than those which include HDL cholesterol.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                29 August 2019
                : 15
                : 1061-1071
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard , New Delhi 110062, India
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Hamdard Institute of Medical Sciences and Research (HIMSR) and HAH-Centenary Hospital, Jamia Hamdard , New Delhi, India
                [3 ]Sushant Lok Phase-1 , Gurgaon, Haryana 122001, India
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kiran DubeyDepartment of Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard , New Delhi110062, IndiaTel +91 981 059 0843Email kirandubey@gmail.com
                © 2019 Sharma et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 7, References: 50, Pages: 11
                Original Research


                atherogenesis indices, hs-crp, cvd risk calculator, cardiovascular


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