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      miRNA-339-5p Plays an Important Role in Invasion and Migration of Pancreatic Cancer Cells


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          This study aimed to investigate the role of miRNA-339-5p in pancreatic cancer cell invasion and migration.


          The differences between exosomal miRNAs of PANC02 and PANC02-H7 were studied by microarray analysis. We measured miRNA-339-5p expression in different groups; differences in cell invasion and migration were evaluated using the Transwell and wound healing assays and expression of relative proteins (E-cadherin, vimentin and ZNF689) was measured by WB assay. The correlation between miRNA-339-5p and ZNF689 expression was evaluated by luciferase reporter gene assay.


          Compared with PANC02 exosome, microarray analysis indicated that miRNA-339-5p mRNA expression was significantly suppressed (P<0.001) in the PANC02-H7 exosome. Supplementation with miR-339-5p mimics led to a significant decrease in the invasion cell number and wound healing rate (P<0.001), with significantly enhanced E-cadherin expression and suppressed vimentin expression (P<0.001). However, transfection of a miR-339-5p inhibitor led to a significant increase in the invasion cell number and wound healing rate (P<0.001), with significantly suppressed E-cadherin expression and increased vimentin expression (P<0.001). Luciferase reporter gene assay demonstrated ZNF689 gene to be the target of miR-339-5p in the PANC02-H7 cell. With miR-339-5p and ZNF689 transfection, the invasion cell number and wound healing rate were significantly increased compared with those in the miR-339-5p group (P<0.001), with significantly increased expression of ZNF689 and vimentin and suppressed E-cadherin expression (P<0.001).


          miR-339-5p suppresses the invasion and migration of pancreatic cancer cells via direct regulation of ZNF689 in vitro.

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          Zinc finger proteins in cancer progression

          Zinc finger proteins are the largest transcription factor family in human genome. The diverse combinations and functions of zinc finger motifs make zinc finger proteins versatile in biological processes, including development, differentiation, metabolism and autophagy. Over the last few decades, increasing evidence reveals the potential roles of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. However, the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression vary in different cancer types and even in the same cancer type under different types of stress. Here, we discuss general mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in transcription regulation and summarize recent studies on zinc finger proteins in cancer progression. In this review, we also emphasize the importance of further investigations in elucidating the underlying mechanisms of zinc finger proteins in cancer progression.
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            Therapeutic options for the management of pancreatic cancer.

            Since its initial characterization, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma has remained one of the most devastating and difficult cancers to treat. Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, resulting in an estimated 38460 deaths annually. With few screening tools available to detect this disease at an early stage, 94% of patients will die within five years of diagnosis. Despite decades of research that have led to a better understanding of the molecular and cellular signaling pathways in pancreatic cancer cells, few effective therapies have been developed to target these pathways. Other treatment options have included more sophisticated pancreatic cancer surgeries and combination therapies. While outcomes have improved modestly for these patients, more effective treatments are desperately needed. One of the greatest challenges in the future of treating this malignancy will be to develop therapies that target the tumor microenvironment and surrounding pancreatic cancer stem cells in addition to pancreatic cancer cells. Recent advances in targeting pancreatic stellate cells and the stroma have encouraged researchers to shift their focus to the role of desmoplasia in pancreatic cancer pathobiology in the hopes of developing newer-generation therapies. By combining novel agents with current cytotoxic chemotherapies and radiation therapy and personalizing them to each patient based on specific biomarkers, the goal of prolonging a patient's life could be achieved. Here we review the most effective therapies that have been used for the treatment of pancreatic cancer and discuss the future potential of therapeutic options.
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              Progress and problems with the use of suicide genes for targeted cancer therapy

              Among various gene therapy methods for cancer, suicide gene therapy attracts a special attention because it allows selective conversion of non-toxic compounds into cytotoxic drugs inside cancer cells. As a result, therapeutic index can be increased significantly by introducing high concentrations of cytotoxic molecules to the tumor environment while minimizing impact on normal tissues. Despite significant success at the preclinical level, no cancer suicide gene therapy protocol has delivered the desirable clinical significance yet. This review gives a critical look at the six main enzyme/prodrug systems that are used in suicide gene therapy of cancer and familiarizes readers with the state-of-the-art research and practices in this field. For each enzyme/prodrug system, the mechanisms of action, protein engineering strategies to enhance enzyme stability/affinity and chemical modification techniques to increase prodrug kinetics and potency are discussed. In each category, major clinical trials that have been performed in the past decade with each enzyme/prodrug system are discussed to highlight the progress to date. Finally, shortcomings are underlined and areas that need improvement in order to produce clinical significance are delineated.

                Author and article information

                Med Sci Monit
                Med. Sci. Monit
                Medical Science Monitor
                Medical Science Monitor : International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
                International Scientific Literature, Inc.
                07 October 2019
                : 25
                : 7509-7517
                [1 ]Hepatic-Biliary-Pancreatic Center, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
                [2 ]Hepatobiliary Surgery Research Institute, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
                [3 ]Department of Pathology, Chinese Medicine Hospital of Jiangsu Province, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
                [4 ]Department of Interventional and Vascular Surgery, Zhongda Hospital, Southeast University, Nanjing, Jiangsu, P.R. China
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Zeqian Yu, e-mail: Yzq-115@ 123456163.com

                Study Design


                Data Collection


                Statistical Analysis


                Data Interpretation


                Manuscript Preparation


                Literature Search


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                © Med Sci Monit, 2019

                This work is licensed under Creative Common Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International ( CC BY-NC-ND 4.0)

                Lab/In Vitro Research

                micrornas,neoplasm invasiveness
                micrornas, neoplasm invasiveness


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