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      Respiratory Syncytial Virus—A Comprehensive Review

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          Abstract

          Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is amongst the most important pathogenic infections of childhood and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although there have been extensive studies of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic techniques, animal models and the immunobiology of infection, there is not yet a convincing and safe vaccine available. The major histopathologic characteristics of RSV infection are acute bronchiolitis, mucosal and submucosal edema, and luminal occlusion by cellular debris of sloughed epithelial cells mixed with macrophages, strands of fibrin, and some mucin. There is a single RSV serotype with two major antigenic subgroups, A and B. Strains of both subtypes often co-circulate, but usually one subtype predominates. In temperate climates, RSV infections reflect a distinct seasonality with onset in late fall or early winter. It is believed that most children will experience at least one RSV infection by the age of 2 years. There are several key animal models of RSV. These include a model in mice and, more importantly, a bovine model; the latter reflects distinct similarity to the human disease. Importantly, the prevalence of asthma is significantly higher amongst children who are hospitalized with RSV in infancy or early childhood. However, there have been only limited investigations of candidate genes that have the potential to explain this increase in susceptibility. An atopic predisposition appears to predispose to subsequent development of asthma and it is likely that subsequent development of asthma is secondary to the pathogenic inflammatory response involving cytokines, chemokines and their cognate receptors. Numerous approaches to the development of RSV vaccines are being evaluated, as are the use of newer antiviral agents to mitigate disease. There is also significant attention being placed on the potential impact of co-infection and defining the natural history of RSV. Clearly, more research is required to define the relationships between RSV bronchiolitis, other viral induced inflammatory responses, and asthma.

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          Most cited references 450

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          Wheezing rhinovirus illnesses in early life predict asthma development in high-risk children.

          Virus-induced wheezing episodes in infancy often precede the development of asthma. Whether infections with specific viral pathogens confer differential future asthma risk is incompletely understood. To define the relationship between specific viral illnesses and early childhood asthma development. A total of 259 children were followed prospectively from birth to 6 years of age. The etiology and timing of specific viral wheezing respiratory illnesses during early childhood were assessed using nasal lavage, culture, and multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. The relationships of these virus-specific wheezing illnesses and other risk factors to the development of asthma were analyzed. Viral etiologies were identified in 90% of wheezing illnesses. From birth to age 3 years, wheezing with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (odds ratio [OR], 2.6), rhinovirus (RV) (OR, 9.8), or both RV and RSV (OR , 10) was associated with increased asthma risk at age 6 years. In Year 1, both RV wheezing (OR, 2.8) and aeroallergen sensitization (OR, 3.6) independently increased asthma risk at age 6 years. By age 3 years, wheezing with RV (OR, 25.6) was more strongly associated with asthma at age 6 years than aeroallergen sensitization (OR, 3.4). Nearly 90% (26 of 30) of children who wheezed with RV in Year 3 had asthma at 6 years of age. Among outpatient viral wheezing illnesses in infancy and early childhood, those caused by RV infections are the most significant predictors of the subsequent development of asthma at age 6 years in a high-risk birth cohort.
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            Pattern recognition receptors TLR4 and CD14 mediate response to respiratory syncytial virus.

            The innate immune system contributes to the earliest phase of the host defense against foreign organisms and has both soluble and cellular pattern recognition receptors for microbial products. Two important members of this receptor group, CD14 and the Toll-like receptor (TLR) pattern recognition receptors, are essential for the innate immune response to components of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, mycobacteria, spirochetes and yeast. We now find that these receptors function in an antiviral response as well. The innate immune response to the fusion protein of an important respiratory pathogen of humans, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), was mediated by TLR4 and CD14. RSV persisted longer in the lungs of infected TLR4-deficient mice compared to normal mice. Thus, a common receptor activation pathway can initiate innate immune responses to both bacterial and viral pathogens.
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              Respiratory syncytial virus in early life and risk of wheeze and allergy by age 13 years.

              The relation between lower respiratory tract illnesses in early life caused by the respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and the subsequent development of wheezing and atopy in childhood is not well understood. We studied this relation in children who had lower respiratory tract illnesses that occurred before 3 years of age. Children were enrolled at birth and cases of lower respiratory tract illness were ascertained by a physician. Viral tests were done for specimens collected at the time of the illness. Children were classified into five groups according to type and cause of lower respiratory tract illness. Children were then followed prospectively up to age 13, and we measured frequency of wheezing, pulmonary function, and atopic status (allergy skin-prick tests, serum IgE concentrations). RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses were associated with an increased risk of infrequent wheeze (odds ratio 3.2 [95% CI 2.0-5.0], p < 0.001), and an increased risk of frequent wheeze (4.3 [2.2-8.7], p < or = 0.001) by age 6. Risk decreased markedly with age and was not significant by age 13. There was no association between RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses and subsequent atopic status. RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses were associated with significantly lower measurements of forced expiratory volume (2.11 [2.05-2.15], p < or = 0.001) when compared with those of children with no lower respiratory tract illnesses, but there was no difference in forced expiratory volume after inhalation of salbutamol. RSV lower respiratory tract illnesses in early childhood are an independent risk factor for the subsequent development of wheezing up to age 11 years but not at age 13. This association is not caused by an increased risk of allergic sensitisation.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +1-530-7522884 , +1-530-7524669
                ljgershwin@ucdavis.edu
                Journal
                Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
                Clin Rev Allergy Immunol
                Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
                Springer US (Boston )
                1080-0549
                1559-0267
                12 April 2013
                2013
                : 45
                : 3
                : 331-379
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.27860.3b, ISNI 0000000419369684, Division of Rheumatology, Allergy and Clinical Immunology, , University of California at Davis School of Medicine, ; 451 Health Sciences Drive, Suite 6501, Davis, CA 95616 USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.27860.3b, ISNI 0000000419369684, Department of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, , University of California, Davis, School of Veterinary Medicine, ; Davis, CA USA
                Article
                8368
                10.1007/s12016-013-8368-9
                7090643
                23575961
                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

                This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for the duration of the World Health Organization (WHO) declaration of COVID-19 as a global pandemic.

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                © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

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