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      Mouse Anterior Pituitary Gland: Analysis by Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry

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          We investigated the proteome of the anterior pituitary gland (AP) in a species in which the genome has been sequenced. Subcellular fractions of APs from 2-month-old male mice were prepared for protein denaturation, treatment with trypsin and analyses utilizing micro liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and the database search software SEQUEST. In the nuclear, non-nuclear 100,000 g and cytosolic fractions, we identified 49, 36 and 68 different proteins, respectively. A total of 115 distinct proteins were detected. We identified growth hormone, prolactin, pro-opiomelanocortin, the α-subunit for the glycoprotein hormones, and luteinizing hormone-β. Groups of other identified proteins included hormone-processing, secretion granule-associated, non-hormonal endoplasmic reticulum-associated, calcium-binding, protein kinase C-associated, histones, non-histone chromosomal, other RNA-binding, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins, splicing factors, helicases, lamins, ribosomal, microtubule-associated, microfilament-associated, adenosine triphosphate- and guanosine triphosphate-associated, tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation, enzymes in glycolysis and the tricarboxylic and urea cycles and the pentose phosphate path, heat-shock, glutathione-associated, peroxidases, ubiquitin-associated, catabolic, protease inhibitors, other, and blood proteins. The 115 proteins reported in this study and the 145 proteins reported in a previous study on the AP of the adult male Golden Syrian hamster are compared and form a foundation for defining the proteome in normal adult male AP.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Method to correlate tandem mass spectra of modified peptides to amino acid sequences in the protein database.

          A method to correlate uninterpreted tandem mass spectra of modified peptides, produced under low-energy (10-50 eV) collision conditions, with amino acid sequences in a protein database has been developed. The fragmentation patterns observed in the tandem mass spectra of peptides containing covalent modifications is used to directly search and fit linear amino acid sequences in the database. Specific information relevant to sites of modification is not contained in the character-based sequence information of the databases. The search method considers each putative modification site as both modified and unmodified in one pass through the database and simultaneously considers up to three different sites of modification. The search method will identify the correct sequence if the tandem mass spectrum did not represent a modified peptide. This approach is demonstrated with peptides containing modifications such as S-carboxymethylated cysteine, oxidized methionine, phosphoserine, phosphothreonine, or phosphotyrosine. In addition, a scanning approach is used in which neutral loss scans are used to initiate the acquisition of product ion MS/MS spectra of doubly charged phosphorylated peptides during a single chromatographic run for data analysis with the database-searching algorithm. The approach described in this paper provides a convenient method to match the nascent tandem mass spectra of modified peptides to sequences in a protein database and thereby identify previously unknown sites of modification.
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            Cloning and primary sequence of a mouse candidate prohormone convertase PC1 homologous to PC2, Furin, and Kex2: distinct chromosomal localization and messenger RNA distribution in brain and pituitary compared to PC2.

             N Seidah,  C Lazure,  M Mattei (1990)
            Using a 796-basepair cDNA fragment obtained from a mouse pituitary library we have screened two mouse insulinoma libraries and isolated a full-length cDNA clone (2516 basepairs; 753 amino acids), designated mPC1. The cDNA sequence of mPC1 codes for a protein containing 753 amino acids and three potential N-glycosylation sites. This cDNA encodes a putative novel subtilisin-like proteinase, exhibiting within its presumed catalytic domain 64%, 55%, and 47% amino acid sequence identity to the recently characterized candidate prohormone convertases human Furin, mouse PC2, and yeast Kex2 gene products, respectively. An identical sequence to mPC1 was derived from a cDNA library of mouse corticotroph AtT-20 tumor cells. An ArgGlyAsp tripeptide identical to the recognition sequence of integrins was observed in the structures of the mammalian PC1, PC2, and Furin. In situ hybridization results demonstrated a distinct localization of the mPC1 and mPC2 transcripts in pituitary and brain. Thus, whereas both mPC1 and mPC2 are found in the intermediate lobe of the pituitary, only mPC1 is easily detected in the anterior lobe. In extrahypothalamic regions of the brain, including cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and spinal cord, mPC2 transcripts predominate over mPC1. Both mRNAs are found in only a fraction of hypothalamic neurons, with greater abundance of mPC1 over mPC2 in the supraoptic nucleus. The genes coding for mPC1 and mPC2 map to the murine chromosomes 13 (band 13c) and 2 (2F3-2H2 region), respectively.
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              The human erythrocyte proteome: analysis by ion trap mass spectrometry.

              This report describes an analysis of the red blood cell proteome by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry in line with liquid chromatography. Mature red blood cells lack all internal cell structures and consist of cytoplasm within a plasma membrane envelope. To maximize outcome, total red blood cell protein was divided into two fractions of membrane-associated proteins and cytoplasmic proteins. Both fractions were divided into subfractions, and proteins were identified in each fraction separately through tryptic digestion. Membrane protein digests were collected from externally exposed proteins, internally exposed proteins, "spectrin extract" mainly consisting of membrane skeleton proteins, and membrane proteins minus spectrin extract. Cytoplasmic proteins were divided into 21 fractions based on molecular mass by size exclusion chromatography. The tryptic peptides were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography and identified by ion trap tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 181 unique protein sequences were identified: 91 in the membrane fractions and 91 in the cytoplasmic fractions. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase was identified with high sequence coverage in both membrane and cytoplasmic fractions. Identified proteins include membrane skeletal proteins, metabolic enzymes, transporters and channel proteins, adhesion proteins, hemoglobins, cellular defense proteins, proteins of the ubiquitin-proteasome system, G-proteins of the Ras family, kinases, chaperone proteins, proteases, translation initiation factors, and others. In addition to the known proteins, there were 43 proteins whose identification was not determined.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                September 2005
                27 September 2005
                : 81
                : 4
                : 229-243
                aDepartment of Cell and Developmental Biology and Anatomy, University of South Carolina School of Medicine, Columbia, S.C.; bInstitute of Biomedical Sciences and Technology, Sickle Cell Disease Research Center, Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, The University of Texas at Dallas, Richardson, Tex., and cDepartment of Cell Biology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Tex., USA
                87434 Neuroendocrinology 2005;81:229–243
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 15
                Original Paper


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