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      A lipophilic prodrug of Danshensu: preparation, characterization, and in vitro and in vivo evaluation

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          Abstract

          Danshensu [3-(3, 4-dihydroxyphenyl) lactic acid, DSS], one of the significant cardioprotective components, is extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza. In the present study, an ester prodrug of Danshensu (DSS), palmitoyl Danshensu (PDSS), was synthesized with the aim to improve its oral bioavailability and prolong its half-life. The in vitro experiments were carried out to evaluate the physicochemical properties and stability of PDSS. Although the solubility of PDSS in water was only 0.055 mg·mL −1, its solubility in FaSSIF and FeSSIF reached 4.68 and 9.08 mg·mL −1, respectively. Octanol-water partition coefficient (log P) was increased from −2.48 of DSS to 1.90 of PDSS. PDSS was relatively stable in the aqueous solution in pH range from 5.6 to 7.4. Furthermore, the pharmacokinetics in rats was evaluated after oral administration of PDSS and DSS. AUC and t 1/2 of PDSS were enhanced up to 9.8-fold and 2.2-fold, respectively, compared to that of DSS. C max was 1.67 ± 0.11 μg·mL −1 for PDSS and 0.81 ± 0.06 μg·mL −1 for DSS. Thus, these results demonstrated that PDSS had much higher oral bioavailability and longer circulation time than its parent drug.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Tight junction modulation and its relationship to drug delivery.

          In order for therapeutic agents to exert their pharmacological effects, they have to cross the biological membranes into the systemic circulation and reach the site of action. Drugs cross the membranes by one of two pathways; paracellular or transcellular. Most drugs are transported transcellularly depending on their physiocochemical properties, however the paracellular route is usually the main route of absorption for hydrophilic drugs (proteins, peptides, etc.). The paracellular pathway is governed by the tight junctions (TJs). The modulation of the TJs by absorption enhancers for paracellular drug transport enhancement and hence drug delivery improvement has been hampered for so many years by lack of comprehensive understanding of the structure and function of the TJs. The TJs are a multiple unit structure composed of multiprotein complex that affiliates with the underlying apical actomyosin ring. TJ proteins identified include transmembrane proteins; occludin and claudin, and cytoplasmic plaque proteins; ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, cingulin, and 7H6. Among the new absorption enhancers that evolved in the past few years is Zonula Occludens toxin, Zot. In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that Zot and its biologically active fragment DeltaG could be effectively used to increase the transport/absorption of paracellular markers and low bioavailable drugs across the intestinal epithelium. Above all, the transient opening of the TJs by Zot suggests that it could be used as a novel approach for the safe drug delivery of therapeutic agents.
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            Targeted prodrug design to optimize drug delivery.

            Classical prodrug design often represents a nonspecific chemical approach to mask undesirable drug properties such as limited bioavailability, lack of site specificity, and chemical instability. On the other hand, targeted prodrug design represents a new strategy for directed and efficient drug delivery. Particularly, targeting the prodrugs to a specific enzyme or a specific membrane transporter, or both, has potential as a selective drug delivery system in cancer chemotherapy or as an efficient oral drug delivery system. Site-selective targeting with prodrugs can be further enhanced by the simultaneous use of gene delivery to express the requisite enzymes or transporters. This review highlights evolving strategies in targeted prodrug design, including antibody-directed enzyme prodrug therapy, gene-directed enzyme prodrug therapy, and peptide transporter-associated prodrug therapy.
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              Protective effects of Danshensu from the aqueous extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen) against homocysteine-induced endothelial dysfunction.

              Homocysteine (Hcy) is a by-product of methionine metabolism. An imbalance of Hcy in the body may lead to hyperhomocysteinemia, a condition with elevated Hcy concentration in blood that may be one of the risk factors responsible for the development of several vascular diseases (thromboembolism, atherosclerosis, stroke, vascular diseases and dementia). Radix Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen), a well-known Chinese medicinal herb that can activate and improve blood microcirculation, is noticeable for its beneficial effect in treating cardiovascular diseases. The present study is to demonstrate the protective effect of Danshen extract against the homocysteine-induced adverse effect on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC). Homocysteine (5 mM) not only decreased the cell viability but also caused the disruption of capillary-like structure formation in vitro. The protective effect of Danshen aqueous extract and its active compounds on endothelial cell function were demonstrated through an in vitro tube formation assay, which mimics the new blood vessel formation. To identify the active components in the aqueous extract of Danshen, the content was characterized by instrumental analysis using high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (DAD) and electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). Interestingly, Danshen extract and its pure compounds showed different effectiveness in protecting HUVEC against Hcy-induced injury according to the following descending order: Danshen aqueous extract, 3-(3,4-dihydroxy-phenyl)-2-hydroxy-propionic acid (Danshensu), protocatechuic acid, catechin and protocatechualdehyde. We believed that such findings might provide evidence in understanding the beneficial effects of Danshen on the cardiovascular system.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CJNM
                Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines
                Elsevier
                1875-5364
                20 May 2017
                : 15
                : 5
                : 355-362
                Affiliations
                1Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, Tianjin University, Education Ministry Key Laboratory of Systems Bioengineering, Tianjin 300072, China
                Author notes
                *Corresponding author: GE Zhi-Qiang, Tel: 86-22-87401546, Fax: 86-22-27403389, E-mail: gezhiq@ 123456tju.edu.cn

                These authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

                Article
                S1875-5364(17)30056-0
                10.1016/S1875-5364(17)30056-0
                Copyright © 2017 China Pharmaceutical University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
                Funding
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 31371014
                This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31371014).

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