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      Taste of breath: the temporal order of taste and smell synchronized with breathing as a determinant for taste and olfactory integration

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          Abstract

          Many studies have reported that subjective taste intensity is enhanced by odors which are congruent, for example a sweet taste and a vanilla odor. Some reports have suggested that subjective taste is more strongly enhanced by retronasal than by orthonasal odors; others have suggested that taste enhancements by both odor routes are identical. Differences between the two routes include the direction of airflow accompanying breath. Thus, it is possible that the order of gustatory and olfactory stimuli when breathing through either route while drinking is a determining factor for taste-odor integration. To reveal the natural relationship between taste intensity enhancement by odors and breath, synchronization of odor stimulation with the breath is necessary. Here, we examined whether the enhancement of a sweet taste is induced by a vanilla odor presented in various combinations of odor routes, immediately before and immediately after drinking. The results showed that a retronasal odor after drinking enhanced taste, but an orthonasal odor before drinking did not. The retronasal odor before drinking and the orthonasal odor after drinking did not enhance the sweet taste. These results show that congruency with the natural order of stimulus and kinetic sensation is a determining factor for odor-induced taste enhancement.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Try it, you'll like it: the influence of expectation, consumption, and revelation on preferences for beer.

          Patrons of a pub evaluated regular beer and "MIT brew" (regular beer plus a few drops of balsamic vinegar) in one of three conditions. One group tasted the samples blind (the secret ingredient was never disclosed). A second group was informed of the contents before tasting. A third group learned of the secret ingredient immediately after tasting, but prior to indicating their preference. Not surprisingly, preference for the MIT brew was higher in the blind condition than in either of the two disclosure conditions. However, the timing of the information mattered substantially. Disclosure of the secret ingredient significantly reduced preference only when the disclosure preceded tasting, suggesting that disclosure affected preferences by influencing the experience itself, rather than by acting as an independent negative input or by modifying retrospective interpretation of the experience.
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            “Taste-smell confusions” and the duality of the olfactory sense

             Paul Rozin (1982)
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              Multisensory flavor perception.

              The perception of flavor is perhaps the most multisensory of our everyday experiences. The latest research by psychologists and cognitive neuroscientists increasingly reveals the complex multisensory interactions that give rise to the flavor experiences we all know and love, demonstrating how they rely on the integration of cues from all of the human senses. This Perspective explores the contributions of distinct senses to our perception of food and the growing realization that the same rules of multisensory integration that have been thoroughly explored in interactions between audition, vision, and touch may also explain the combination of the (admittedly harder to study) flavor senses. Academic advances are now spilling out into the real world, with chefs and food industry increasingly taking the latest scientific findings on board in their food design.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                yujiwd@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                21 August 2017
                21 August 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8863 9909, GRID grid.262576.2, , BKC Research Organization of Social Sciences, Ritsumeikan University, ; 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 Japan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2222 0432, GRID grid.416835.d, , Laboratory of Sensory Science, Food Research Institute, National Agriculture and Food Research Organization, ; 2-1-12, Kannondai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 Japan
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2151 536X, GRID grid.26999.3d, , Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, the University of Tokyo, ; 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 Japan
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2230 7538, GRID grid.208504.b, , Human Technology Research Inst., National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), ; Tsukuba Central 6, 1-1-1 Higashi, Tsukuba Ibaraki, 305-8566 Japan
                [5 ]Advanced Materials & Technology Research, Corporate Research & Development Division, Takasago International Corporation, 1-4-11 Nishiyawata, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 254-0073 Japan
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8863 9909, GRID grid.262576.2, , College of Science and Engineering, Ritsumeikan University, ; 1-1-1 Noji-higashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 Japan
                Article
                7285
                10.1038/s41598-017-07285-7
                5566545
                28827648
                © The Author(s) 2017

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

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