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      The neurobiology of stress: from serendipity to clinical relevance11Published on the World Wide Web on 22 November 2000.

      Brain Research

      Elsevier BV

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          More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment.

          Neurogenesis occurs in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus throughout the life of a rodent, but the function of these new neurons and the mechanisms that regulate their birth are unknown. Here we show that significantly more new neurons exist in the dentate gyrus of mice exposed to an enriched environment compared with littermates housed in standard cages. We also show, using unbiased stereology, that the enriched mice have a larger hippocampal granule cell layer and 15 per cent more granule cell neurons in the dentate gyrus.
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            Memory--a century of consolidation.

            The memory consolidation hypothesis proposed 100 years ago by Müller and Pilzecker continues to guide memory research. The hypothesis that new memories consolidate slowly over time has stimulated studies revealing the hormonal and neural influences regulating memory consolidation, as well as molecular and cellular mechanisms. This review examines the progress made over the century in understanding the time-dependent processes that create our lasting memories.
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              Stress and hippocampal plasticity.

               B McEwen (1998)
              The hippocampus is a target of stress hormones, and it is an especially plastic and vulnerable region of the brain. It also responds to gonadal, thyroid, and adrenal hormones, which modulate changes in synapse formation and dendritic structure and regulate dentate gyrus volume during development and in adult life. Two forms of structural plasticity are affected by stress: Repeated stress causes atrophy of dendrites in the CA3 region, and both acute and chronic stress suppresses neurogenesis of dentate gyrus granule neurons. Besides glucocorticoids, excitatory amino acids and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are involved in these two forms of plasticity as well as in neuronal death that is caused in pyramidal neurons by seizures and by ischemia. The two forms of hippocampal structural plasticity are relevant to the human hippocampus, which undergoes a selective atrophy in a number of disorders, accompanied by deficits in declarative episodic, spatial, and contextual memory performance. It is important, from a therapeutic standpoint, to distinguish between a permanent loss of cells and a reversible atrophy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Brain Research
                Brain Research
                Elsevier BV
                00068993
                December 2000
                December 2000
                : 886
                : 1-2
                : 172-189
                Article
                10.1016/S0006-8993(00)02950-4
                © 2000

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