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      First results from the TNG50 simulation: the evolution of stellar and gaseous discs across cosmic time

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          Abstract

          We present a new cosmological, magnetohydrodynamical simulation for galaxy formation: TNG50, the third and final instalment of the IllustrisTNG project. TNG50 evolves 2 × 21603 dark matter particles and gas cells in a volume 50 comoving Mpc across. It hence reaches a numerical resolution typical of zoom-in simulations, with a baryonic element mass of $8.5\times 10^4\, {\rm M}_{\odot }\(and an average cell size of 70–140 pc in the star-forming regions of galaxies. Simultaneously, TNG50 samples ∼700 (6500) galaxies with stellar masses above \)10^{10} \, (10^8)\, {\rm M}_{\odot }\(at \)z$ = 1. Here we investigate the structural and kinematical evolution of star-forming galaxies across cosmic time (0 ≲ $z$ ≲ 6). We quantify their sizes, disc heights, 3D shapes, and degree of rotational versus dispersion-supported motions as traced by rest-frame V-band light (i.e. roughly stellar mass) and by $\rm H\,\alpha\(light (i.e. star-forming and dense gas). The unprecedented resolution of TNG50 enables us to model galaxies with sub-kpc half-light radii and with ≲300-pc disc heights. Coupled with the large-volume statistics, we characterize a diverse, redshift- and mass-dependent structural and kinematical morphological mix of galaxies all the way to early epochs. Our model predicts that for star-forming galaxies the fraction of disc-like morphologies, based on 3D stellar shapes, increases with both cosmic time and galaxy stellar mass. Gas kinematics reveal that the vast majority of \)10^{9-11.5}\, {\rm M}_{\odot }\(star-forming galaxies are rotationally supported discs for most cosmic epochs (Vrot/σ > 2–3, \)z$ ≲ 5), being dynamically hotter at earlier epochs ($z$ ≳ 1.5). Despite large velocity dispersion at high redshift, cold and dense gas in galaxies predominantly arranges in disky or elongated shapes at all times and masses; these gaseous components exhibit rotationally dominated motions far exceeding the collisionless stellar bodies.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0035-8711
                1365-2966
                December 2019
                December 11 2019
                December 2019
                December 11 2019
                September 09 2019
                : 490
                : 3
                : 3196-3233
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg, Germany
                [2 ]Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str 1, D-85741 Garching, Germany
                [3 ]Department of Physics, University of Florida, 2001 Museum Rd., Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
                [4 ]Harvard–Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA
                [5 ]Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
                [6 ]Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, via Gobetti 93/2, I-40129 Bologna, Italy
                [7 ]Center for Computational Astrophysics, Flatiron Institute, 162 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10010, USA
                [8 ]Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281 S9, B-9000 Gent, Belgium
                Article
                10.1093/mnras/stz2338
                c91704fe-68bb-4dce-9d06-d736a21c9ec2
                © 2019

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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