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      Principles of tissue engineering applied to programmable osteogenesis.

      Journal of biomedical materials research

      Animals, Surface Properties, Spinal Fusion, Rabbits, pharmacology, Polymers, Physicochemical Phenomena, Phenotype, physiology, Osteogenesis, Osteoblasts, Microscopy, Electron, Scanning, Materials Testing, Lactic Acid, chemistry, Hyaluronic Acid, Humans, Engineering, Chemistry, Physical, Cells, Cultured, cytology, anatomy & histology, Bone and Bones, Bone Substitutes, Biocompatible Materials

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          Abstract

          This article presents a strategy for design, engineering, and fabrication of a bioresorbable, manufactured bone graft substitute (BGS) device. The approach is based on established precepts of osteogenesis, molecular biology of hyaluronic acid and osteoinductive proteins, and theoretical preformance criteria for such a device collated from the literature of 1991 to 1996. Application of this design and engineering strategy results in a composite device consisting of a D,D-L,L-polylactic acid macrostructure optimized to the architecture of cancellous bone, a microstructure composed of a filamentous velour of hyaluronan and a recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (rhBMP-2). The performance of this construct was tested in vivo in the dog, intertransverse process, spinal fusion model and in a critical sized defect of the rabbit radius. Data from these studies are used to illustrate principle points of the design and engineering concept.

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