Blog
About

0
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
2 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Intestinal dendritic cell and macrophage subsets: Tipping the balance to Crohn's Disease?

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisher
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Dendritic cells and macrophages play an essential role in immune homeostasis in the intestine. They have the critical task of maintaining the balance between tolerance to the intestinal microflora and potential food antigens while retaining the ability to initiate immunity against pathogens. For patients with Crohn's Disease, the tolerance/immunity balance is disturbed and these individuals suffer from chronic intestinal inflammation driven by aberrant T cell reactivity to intestinal bacteria. As antigen presenting cells are required for T cell activation, intestinal phagocytes with the capacity to present antigens from intestinal bacteria to T cells are likely involved in initiating and propagating Crohn's Disease. Recent data describe unique subsets of human intestinal phagocytes that may be involved in the aberrant reactivity to commensal flora that drives Crohn's Disease pathogenesis. This review summarizes the current knowledge of phagocyte subsets in the intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes in healthy individuals and Crohn's Disease patients. Deciphering the function of intestinal phagocytes in health and disease is crucial to advance our understanding of the cellular mechanisms underlying this debilitating disease, provides a potential way to improve treatment for patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 45

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Superior antigen cross-presentation and XCR1 expression define human CD11c+CD141+ cells as homologues of mouse CD8+ dendritic cells

          In recent years, human dendritic cells (DCs) could be subdivided into CD304+ plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs) and conventional DCs (cDCs), the latter encompassing the CD1c+, CD16+, and CD141+ DC subsets. To date, the low frequency of these DCs in human blood has essentially prevented functional studies defining their specific contribution to antigen presentation. We have established a protocol for an effective isolation of pDC and cDC subsets to high purity. Using this approach, we show that CD141+ DCs are the only cells in human blood that express the chemokine receptor XCR1 and respond to the specific ligand XCL1 by Ca2+ mobilization and potent chemotaxis. More importantly, we demonstrate that CD141+ DCs excel in cross-presentation of soluble or cell-associated antigen to CD8+ T cells when directly compared with CD1c+ DCs, CD16+ DCs, and pDCs from the same donors. Both in their functional XCR1 expression and their effective processing and presentation of exogenous antigen in the context of major histocompatibility complex class I, human CD141+ DCs correspond to mouse CD8+ DCs, a subset known for superior antigen cross-presentation in vivo. These data define CD141+ DCs as professional antigen cross-presenting DCs in the human.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Characterization of human DNGR-1+ BDCA3+ leukocytes as putative equivalents of mouse CD8α+ dendritic cells

            In mouse, a subset of dendritic cells (DCs) known as CD8α+ DCs has emerged as an important player in the regulation of T cell responses and a promising target in vaccination strategies. However, translation into clinical protocols has been hampered by the failure to identify CD8α+ DCs in humans. Here, we characterize a population of human DCs that expresses DNGR-1 (CLEC9A) and high levels of BDCA3 and resembles mouse CD8α+ DCs in phenotype and function. We describe the presence of such cells in the spleens of humans and humanized mice and report on a protocol to generate them in vitro. Like mouse CD8α+ DCs, human DNGR-1+ BDCA3hi DCs express Necl2, CD207, BATF3, IRF8, and TLR3, but not CD11b, IRF4, TLR7, or (unlike CD8α+ DCs) TLR9. DNGR-1+ BDCA3hi DCs respond to poly I:C and agonists of TLR8, but not of TLR7, and produce interleukin (IL)-12 when given innate and T cell–derived signals. Notably, DNGR-1+ BDCA3+ DCs from in vitro cultures efficiently internalize material from dead cells and can cross-present exogenous antigens to CD8+ T cells upon treatment with poly I:C. The characterization of human DNGR-1+ BDCA3hi DCs and the ability to grow them in vitro opens the door for exploiting this subset in immunotherapy.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Origin of the lamina propria dendritic cell network.

              CX(3)CR1(+) and CD103(+) dendritic cells (DCs) in intestinal lamina propria play a key role in mucosal immunity. However, the origin and the developmental pathways that regulate their differentiation in the lamina propria remain unclear. We showed that monocytes gave rise exclusively to CD103(-)CX(3)CR1(+) lamina propria DCs under the control of macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor (M-CSFR) and Fms-like thyrosine kinase 3 (Flt3) ligands. In contrast, common DC progenitors (CDP) and pre-DCs, which give rise to lymphoid organ DCs but not to monocytes, differentiated exclusively into CD103(+)CX(3)CR1(-) lamina propria DCs under the control of Flt3 and granulocyte-macrophage-colony-stimulating factor receptor (GM-CSFR) ligands. CD103(+)CX(3)CR1(-) DCs but not CD103(-)CX(3)CR1(+) DCs in the lamina propria constitutively expressed CCR7 and were the first DCs to transport pathogenic Salmonella from the intestinal tract to the mesenteric lymph nodes. Altogether, these results underline the diverse origin of the lamina propria DC network and identify mucosal DCs that arise from pre-DCs as key sentinels of the gut immune system.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                1886
                122234
                European Journal of Microbiology and Immunology
                EuJMI
                Akadémiai Kiadó, co-published with Springer Science+Business Media B.V., Formerly Kluwer Academic Publishers B.V.
                2062-509X
                2062-8633
                1 March 2011
                : 1
                : 1
                : 19-24
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden
                [ 2 ] Dept. Microbiology and Immunology, University of Gothenburg, Box 435, 405 30, Gothenburg, Sweden
                Author notes
                Article
                5
                10.1556/EuJMI.1.2011.1.5
                Categories
                Review Articles

                Comments

                Comment on this article