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      Circulating plasmablasts and high level of BAFF are hallmarks of minimal change nephrotic syndrome in adults

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          Abstract

          Background

          The recent success achieved with the use of B cell-depleting agents in some patients with minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) suggests an unexpected role for B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of this immune-mediated glomerular disease. Nevertheless, no extensive B-cell phenotyping analysis has ever been performed in untreated adult patients soon after MCNS diagnosis.

          Methods

          We investigated the distribution of the different B-cell subpopulations in 22 untreated adult patients with biopsy-proven MCNS [MCNS relapse (MCNS-Rel)]. We compared these data with those for 24 healthy controls, 13 MCNS patients in remission (with no specific treatment) and 19 patients with idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN).

          Results

          Patients with MCNS-Rel or IMN had higher proteinuria and lower serum albumin and gammaglobulin levels (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons) than MCNS patients in remission. Plasmablasts were the only B-cell subsets present at significantly higher levels in MCNS-Rel patients than in the patients of the other three groups (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). The lower albumin levels and higher proteinuria levels were positively correlated with the percentage of circulating plasmablasts (Spearman test’s ρ = −0.54, P = 0.01 and ρ = 0.65, P = 0.002, respectively). Similarly, the increase of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and the decrease of IgG levels were significantly associated with the percentage of plasmablasts in MCNS-Rel patients (Spearman’s ρ = 0.36, P = 0.01 and Spearman’s ρ = −0.60, P = 0.01, respectively). Increased production of interleukin (IL)-21, IL-6 and B-cell activating factor (BAFF) in the serum of MCNS-Rel patients was found significantly correlated with the percentage of plasmablasts (ρ = 0.72, P = 0.0002, ρ = 0.49, P = 0.04 and ρ = 0.62, P = 0.009, respectively).

          Conclusions

          An increase in the proportion of circulating plasmablasts seems to be a hallmark of untreated MCNS in adult patients. Further studies are required to more precisely determine the phenotype and functions of these cells.

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          Most cited references51

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          A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate.

          Equations to estimate glomerular filtration rate (GFR) are routinely used to assess kidney function. Current equations have limited precision and systematically underestimate measured GFR at higher values. To develop a new estimating equation for GFR: the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation. Cross-sectional analysis with separate pooled data sets for equation development and validation and a representative sample of the U.S. population for prevalence estimates. Research studies and clinical populations ("studies") with measured GFR and NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), 1999 to 2006. 8254 participants in 10 studies (equation development data set) and 3896 participants in 16 studies (validation data set). Prevalence estimates were based on 16,032 participants in NHANES. GFR, measured as the clearance of exogenous filtration markers (iothalamate in the development data set; iothalamate and other markers in the validation data set), and linear regression to estimate the logarithm of measured GFR from standardized creatinine levels, sex, race, and age. In the validation data set, the CKD-EPI equation performed better than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation, especially at higher GFR (P < 0.001 for all subsequent comparisons), with less bias (median difference between measured and estimated GFR, 2.5 vs. 5.5 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), improved precision (interquartile range [IQR] of the differences, 16.6 vs. 18.3 mL/min per 1.73 m(2)), and greater accuracy (percentage of estimated GFR within 30% of measured GFR, 84.1% vs. 80.6%). In NHANES, the median estimated GFR was 94.5 mL/min per 1.73 m(2) (IQR, 79.7 to 108.1) vs. 85.0 (IQR, 72.9 to 98.5) mL/min per 1.73 m(2), and the prevalence of chronic kidney disease was 11.5% (95% CI, 10.6% to 12.4%) versus 13.1% (CI, 12.1% to 14.0%). The sample contained a limited number of elderly people and racial and ethnic minorities with measured GFR. The CKD-EPI creatinine equation is more accurate than the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation and could replace it for routine clinical use. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases.
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            Efficacy and safety of belimumab in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

            Systemic lupus erythematosus is a heterogeneous autoimmune disease that is associated with B-cell hyperactivity, autoantibodies, and increased concentrations of B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS). The efficacy and safety of the fully human monoclonal antibody belimumab (BLyS-specific inhibitor) was assessed in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus. Patients (aged ≥18 years) who were seropositive with scores of at least 6 on the Safety of Estrogens in Lupus Erythematosus National Assessment-Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index (SELENA-SLEDAI) were enrolled in a multicentre phase 3 study, which was done in Latin America, Asia-Pacific, and eastern Europe. Patients were randomly assigned by use of a central interactive voice response system in a 1:1:1 ratio to belimumab 1 mg/kg or 10 mg/kg, or placebo by intravenous infusion in 1 h on days 0, 14, and 28, and then every 28 days until 48 weeks, with standard of care. Patients, investigators, study coordinators, and sponsors were masked to treatment assignment. Primary efficacy endpoint was improvement in the Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Responder Index (SRI) at week 52 (reduction ≥4 points in SELENA-SLEDAI score; no new British Isles Lupus Assessment Group [BILAG] A organ domain score and no more than 1 new B organ domain score; and no worsening [<0·3 increase] in Physician's Global Assessment [PGA] score) versus baseline. Method of analysis was by modified intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00424476. 867 patients were randomly assigned to belimumab 1 mg/kg (n=289) or 10 mg/kg (n=290), or placebo (n=288). 865 were treated and analysed in the belimumab (1 mg/kg, n=288; 10 mg/kg, n=290) and placebo groups (n=287). Significantly higher SRI rates were noted with belimumab 1 mg/kg (148 [51%], odds ratio 1·55 [95% CI 1·10-2·19]; p=0·0129) and 10 mg/kg (167 [58%], 1·83 [1·30-2·59]; p=0·0006) than with placebo (125 [44%]) at week 52. More patients had their SELENA-SLEDAI score reduced by at least 4 points during 52 weeks with belimumab 1 mg/kg (153 [53%], 1·51 [1·07-2·14]; p=0·0189) and 10 mg/kg (169 [58%], 1·71 [1·21-2·41]; p=0·0024) than with placebo (132 [46%]). More patients given belimumab 1 mg/kg (226 [78%], 1·38 [0·93-2·04]; p=0·1064) and 10 mg/kg (236 [81%], 1·62 [1·09-2·42]; p=0·0181) had no new BILAG A or no more than 1 new B flare than did those in the placebo group (210 [73%]). No worsening in PGA score was noted in more patients with belimumab 1 mg/kg (227 [79%], 1·68 [1·15-2·47]; p=0·0078) and 10 mg/kg (231 [80%], 1·74 [1·18-2·55]; p=0·0048) than with placebo (199 [69%]). Rates of adverse events were similar in the groups given belimumab 1 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg, and placebo: serious infection was reported in 22 (8%), 13 (4%), and 17 (6%) patients, respectively, and severe or serious hypersensitivity reactions on an infusion day were reported in two (<1%), two (<1%), and no patients, respectively. No malignant diseases were reported. Belimumab has the potential to be the first targeted biological treatment that is approved specifically for systemic lupus erythematosus, providing a new option for the management of this important prototypic autoimmune disease. Human Genome Sciences and GlaxoSmithKline. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Induction and effector functions of T(H)17 cells.

              T helper (T(H)) cells constitute an important arm of the adaptive immune system because they coordinate defence against specific pathogens, and their unique cytokines and effector functions mediate different types of tissue inflammation. The recently discovered T(H)17 cells, the third subset of effector T helper cells, have been the subject of intense research aimed at understanding their role in immunity and disease. Here we review emerging data suggesting that T(H)17 cells have an important role in host defence against specific pathogens and are potent inducers of autoimmunity and tissue inflammation. In addition, the differentiation factors responsible for their generation have revealed an interesting reciprocal relationship with regulatory T (T(reg)) cells, which prevent tissue inflammation and mediate self-tolerance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation
                Oxford University Press (OUP)
                0931-0509
                1460-2385
                April 01 2021
                March 29 2021
                November 30 2020
                April 01 2021
                March 29 2021
                November 30 2020
                : 36
                : 4
                : 609-617
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Assistance Publique des Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP), Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Service de Néphrologie et Transplantation, Centre de Référence Maladie Rare « Syndrome Néphrotique Idiopathique », Fédération Hospitalo-Universitaire « Innovative Therapy for Immune Disorders », Créteil, France
                [2 ]Univ Paris Est Créteil, Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale (INSERM) U955, Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale (IMRB), Equipe 21, Créteil, France
                [3 ]AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Département d’Hématologie et Immunologie Biologiques, Créteil, France
                [4 ]Univ Paris Est Créteil, INSERM U955, IMRB, Equipe Immunorégulation et Biothérapie, Créteil, France
                [5 ]AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Service de Santé Publique, Unité de Recherche Clinique, Université Paris Est Créteil, INSERM U955, IMRB, Equipe CEPIA, Créteil, France
                [6 ]Univ Paris Est Créteil, INSERM U955, IMRB, Equipe 2, Créteil, France
                [7 ]AP-HP, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Service de Néphrologie, Paris, France
                [8 ]Faculté de Médecine Paris-Descartes, Université de Paris, Paris, France
                [9 ]AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Département de Pathologie, Créteil, France
                [10 ]Service de Néphrologie et Transplantation, AP-HP, Hôpital Saint Louis, Paris, France
                [11 ]AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires du Kremlin Bicêtre, Service de Néphrologie-Dialyse-Transplantation, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France
                [12 ]Univ Paris Est Créteil, INSERM U955, IMRB, Equipe 9, Créteil, France
                [13 ]AP-HP, Hôpitaux Universitaires Henri Mondor, Service de Médecine interne, Centre de Référence Maladie Rare « Cytopénies Auto-immunes », Créteil, France
                Article
                10.1093/ndt/gfaa279
                33241414
                c9264e12-32c6-4283-96fd-5adcfd025980
                © 2020

                https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model

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